What comes to mind when you are asked, “What is your philosophy of education?”
What will you teach? How will you teach it? How will you evaluate it? Your philosophy will help determine your course of action.
“99% of the kids you deal with are great kids! kids! The other 1% simply need your love and understanding.”
Philosophy The study of the nature of knowledge and existence and the principles of moral and ethical value. The general principles of a field of study. (Philosophy of education) Wisdom or insight applied to life itself. The philosophical teachings of a group.
Social Perspectives – The process of learning how to function in society (families, school…) The Fundamentalist Perspective – sees society as sharing a common set of values. This leads to institutions such as families, schools, govt. & religious bodies that promote social cohesion The Conflict Perspective – sees schools as places where contending interest groups compete for educational advantage. They look for potential winners & losers when they look to change school programs.
Roles of Schools in Society Transmission of the general culture Dissemination of knowledge Preparation of the world of work Promotion of social and group relationships Encouragement of social change.
Philosophical Perspectives -Axiology Axiology focuses on questions of what ought to be Is there a particular standard of moral behavior that you, the teacher, should emphasize? Many students have concluded that life is not worth living.Will you stress academics or moral behavior How should life be lived? Does life have any meaning? What is the highest good? What is moral & immoral? What is beauty? How should a person behave?
Philosophical Perspectives - LOGIC Logic deals with the relationships among ideas and is used to differentiate between valid and fallacious thinking. Deductive reasoning – Make sure students have a solid grasp of principles or ideas through example. Direct instruction, advanced organizers, and lecture are teaching strategies that are often used. Inductive reasoning – Gather a large number of examples before instruction begins to represent the principal you want to get across to learners. Inquiry approaches & discovery learning are teaching strategies used.
Educational Applications of Philosophical Ideas Be thinking – What will your own personal philosophy of education look like?
PROGRESSIVISM PROGRESSIVISM -John Dewey – Early 1900s TeacherTeacher - assists learner- is a facilitator - emphasis on problem solving, not memorization StrategiesStrategies-because knowledge is tentative, students help plan what and how they will learn CurriculumCurriculum - skills attainment – community field trips ManagementManagement - lots of freedom to choose Human beings are good & someone who is educated, has the insights to adapt to change
ESSENTIALISM – William Bagley (1941) TeacherTeacher - teaches basic skills, courses taught separately, higher thinking skills encouraged, competency testing, teachers character must be outstanding; dates back to Ben Franklin “a can-do attitude” Lots of lecture – impart information to students – Students to learn & retain factual inform. StrategiesStrategies - lots of paper and pencil, reading classics, skill and drill - teacher authority – hard work & discipline. CurriculumCurriculum - reading, writing, and math, science and social studies in high school-don’t dilute with trivial subjects-arts and humanities frills-not preparing for adulthood ManagementManagement - student follows directions and behaves appropriately – Do not prepare for citizenship & work
PERENNIALISM TeacherTeacher - searching for truth and unchanging principles, avid reader and writer, condemns essentialists for memorizing what is always changing-want mastery of lasting truths StrategiesStrategies - stresses great works, art, literature, music-small group discussions CurriculumCurriculum-focus on literature, emphasis on getting concepts in math, science, social studies. Certain basic truths/concepts must be mastered doesn’t want vocational training ManagementManagement-behavior expected to be in a rational manner. Came along after 1950
Existentialism Relatively recent model – has influenced education less than the other basic philosophies. Accountability & measuring outcomes are not important. People should have freedom to make choices and identify their own reasons for existing. Each person must define truth, beauty, right & wrong for himself. Sudbury Model – Schools place great emphasis on personal freedom – Learners shape their own experiences.
RECONSTRUCTIONISM TeacherTeacher - liberal thinker - challenges rules of the school district – wants teacher to raise issues, but not be a transmitter of knowledge. StrategiesStrategies - students encouraged to solve social problems-social reform CurriculumCurriculum - heavily multicultural-leads students to critically appraise all elements of society - ManagementManagement - liberal discipline Want to improve the human condition through reform – believe society has lost its way
TEACHER EDUCATION-ISU MORAL VIRTUES Sensitivity toward the varieties of individual and cultural diversitySensitivity toward the varieties of individual and cultural diversity Disposition and ability to collaborate ethically and effectively with othersDisposition and ability to collaborate ethically and effectively with others Reverence for learning and seriousness of personal, professional, and public purposeReverence for learning and seriousness of personal, professional, and public purpose Respect for learners of all ages, with special regard for children and adolescentsRespect for learners of all ages, with special regard for children and adolescents
TEACHER EDUCATION-ISU INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES Wide general knowledge and deep knowledge of the content to be taughtWide general knowledge and deep knowledge of the content to be taught Knowledge and appreciation of the diversity among learnersKnowledge and appreciation of the diversity among learners Understanding what affects learning and appropriate teaching strategiesUnderstanding what affects learning and appropriate teaching strategies Interest in and ability to seek out informational, technological, and collegial resourcesInterest in and ability to seek out informational, technological, and collegial resources Contagious intellectual enthusiasm and courage enough to be creativeContagious intellectual enthusiasm and courage enough to be creative