2 SMAW electrodesA SMAW electrode has a wire core coated with ______. The wire core transfers the current to the workpiece.The arc melts the metal core, flux coating, and the base metal at temps over _____ degrees.The wire core mixes with the melted ______________, which then forms the weld.
3 Advantage of fluxGives off a ___________ that protects the weld from impurities.Cleans and _________ the metalStabilizes the arc and reduces __________.Forms a slag covering that further protects the weld.
4 FluxSome flux coatings have powdered metal and alloying elements in them. This powdered metal adds ________________ and helps improve the _____________ of the weld.These elements change the chemical composition and strength of the weld metal.
5 AWS Filler metal spec system The most common welding electrodes are discussed in the _______ (Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW welding) and ________ ( Specifications for low-alloy steel electrodes for SMAW welding).Electrodes in ______ are used to weld mild carbon steel.Electrodes in ______ are used to weld low alloy, high strength steels.
6 Number systemThe classification system for electrodes uses the prefix E followed by four or five numbers. This is printed on each electrode near the end of the rod.The number system is as follows:E- stands for ___________The first two numbers, multiplied by 1,000 represent the ___________ in square inch of the weld.The third number indicates the possible welding ___________1= _______________2= flat and horizontal only4= flat, horizontal, overhead, and vertical positionsThe fourth number represents the special characteristics of the flux coating and type of current required.
7 Manufacturers classification All electrodes used for code work must have the AWS classification number printed on them as well as on the ___________ in which they are shipped.Each manufacturer must also include the __________ for their product.
8 Electrode sizeElectrodes come in standard sizes, usually ranging from ___________ in thickness.Typically come in ____ and ___ pound cansNumber of electrodes in a can vary based on the thickness and length of the electrodes.
9 Electrode groupsElectrodes are grouped into _____ different types based on their general characteristics:Fast freezeFast fillFill freezeLow hydrogen
10 Fast fill electrodesFast freeze electrodes are all position electrodes that provide deep ____________.The weld bead is flat with distinct ripples and the light slag coating can be hard to remove.The arc is very easy to control which makes this electrode good for _______________________ welding. Electrodes in this group include….. E6010, E7010, and E6011Typical use includes:Vertical up and overhead plate weldingPipe weldingWeld joints requiring deep penetrationSheet metal welds
11 Fast Fill electrodesFast fill electrodes have powdered _____ in the flux, which gives them high deposition rates but requires that they be used only for ______ welds and __________ fillet welds.Have shallow penetration and excellent appearance with almost no splatter. The slag is also very easy to remove.These electrodes have a __ as the next to last number… E6027, E7024, and E rods are typical.Typically used on plate more than ¼’ inch thick and flat and horizontal fillet welds and also lap welds.
12 Fill Freeze Electrodes Fill freeze electrodes are ________________electrodes that are commonly used for vertical and flat welding.Have medium deposition rates and penetration and are excellent for sheet metal. The weld bead ranges from smooth and ripple free to even with distinct ripples. Has medium slag covering that is easy to remove.Electrodes include E6012, E6013, and E7014. Typically used for vertical fillet welds, joints having poor fit up in the flat position, and general purpose welding.
13 Low hydrogen electrodes Low hydrogen electrodes are designed for welding high sulfur, phosphorus, and medium to high carbon steels which have a tendency to develop ____________ and __________ under the weld bead due to hydrogen that is absorbed during welding.Electrodes in this group include E7015, E7016, E7018, E7028, and E7048. Typical application includes…X ray quality weldsCrack resistant weldsMinimized porosityWelds requiring 70,000 psiMulti pass welds in all positions
14 Low hydrogenIf hydrogen is present, it will create __________. The greatest source of hydrogen is water moisture, which is composed of oxygen and hydrogen.Low hydrogen electrodes are carefully manufactured to eliminate ____________ in the flux coating.If low hydrogen electrodes are exposed to the atmosphere, they will begin to absorb moisture and no longer be low-hydrogen. For this reason, all low hydrogen electrodes are shipped in hermetically sealed metal containers. Once opened, these electrodes must be stored in a _______________ to keep moisture out.
15 Electrode consideration If there is a WPS for the weld to be made, the filler metal (electrode) will be specified. The filler metal specified in the WPS must be used.The filler metal should match the base metals _________________________ and mechanical properties. These properties of the base metal can be obtained by referring to the _________________________________.
16 Base metal thicknessNormally , an electrode that is _____________ in diameter than the _____________ of the metal to be welded is used.When welding sheet metal, use a E6013 electrode due to its shallow penetration.On thick metal, use a E6010 or E7010 electrode on the root pass for its deep penetration on a root pass.
17 Electrode storageElectrodes must always be kept ______. If the flux starts to absorb moisture from the atmosphere then weld defects begin to show up. Some of these defects may not be visible to the naked eye._________________ electrodes pick up moisture faster than any other electrodes.
18 Code requirementsAll welding codes require electrodes with a low hydrogen coating to receive special handling. They must be shipped in sealed containers and be stored in special ovens at temps of ________ degrees.Once these electrodes are removed from the oven, they can only be exposed to the atmosphere for a short period of time. This is known as their ____________.
19 Electrode storageAll electrodes other than low hydrogen electrodes must be shipped in moisture resistant containers.The electrodes must not be used if their coatings are damaged or if they have came into contact with _________________.
20 Storing Electrodes cont… Always store electrodes in a _________________ storage area.Never store directly on the floor. This can cause the electrodes to from condensation.
21 Exposure timeThe time that an electrode can be exposed to the atmosphere is limited and depends on the electrodes exposure time. ( the amount of time that the electrode can be out of the oven before it begins to absorb moisture)Samples of electrodes being used at a job site are often collected by quality control for _________________.If high moisture content is found in the electrodes, then the welds must be _____________.
22 Drying electrodesElectrodes that exceed the maximum exposure time can be dried again only __________.After that they are no longer useable.
23 Traceability requirements A WPS on a job site normally specifies the type of electrode that must be used. Once the weld is made, there must be a way to trace and document it.______________ requirements vary according to client requirements and specifications.One of the most common requirements for traceability can be found in the ______________________________________, Section II, Material Specifications.This section lists acceptable base metal and filler metal combinations.