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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Telecommuncations and Networks Thursday September 29, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Telecommuncations and Networks Thursday September 29, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Telecommuncations and Networks Thursday September 29, 2005

2 Reminders  Reading –For today  Fundamentals text, Chapter Four, Telecommunications chapter  Homework –Homework Three  Networks and Telecommunications  Due this Friday, September 30 th  Will need to use outside resources to answer several questions  Next week: Exam (covers Overview of MIS, Hardware, Software)  Exam Review Session: Next Wednesday at 7pm, room to be announced  Two weeks from now: Databases

3 Enterprise Application Software  Software that benefits an entire organization  Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software: programs that manage a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization

4 Enterprise Software Applications In an ERP suite, all of these applications would be software modules that you could buy separately or in combination

5 ERP Example  Rowe Furniture –Implemented SAP ERP modules to become more competitive with cheaper overseas rivals –Wanted to cut furniture delivery times to retailers from 45 days to 10 days by early 2006 –Replacing legacy third-party and homegrown systems that had reached the end of their useful lives –SAP applications installed in 2004  Human resources  Payroll  Production scheduling –SAP applications Rowe may install in the future  Supply chain management  Customer relationship management  Customer portal –Software installation and transition have resulted in  Lower production levels, backlog of orders, late shipments  Weren’t using the software correctly –New software changed  Way 5,500 wooden pieces that are assembled into frames were stored and handled  Way demand is predicted  Way inventory is logged

6 Enterprise Software Example

7 Supply Chain Example  i2 Technology Inc. –One of the largest supply chain software vendors  Because of globalization i2 customers demanding –Greater scalability of applications –Better integration with far-flung partners –Centralized accurate data –Ability to respond quickly to changes in demand  i2 response –Extensive training services –Agile business platform  Standardizing suite around Microsoft technology platform –End-users can access their SCM applications via Windows- based desktop products, such as Excel

8 Software Development  Proprietary software: unique program for a specific application, usually developed and owned by a single company  Off-the-shelf software: purchased software –Customized package  Application Service Provider (ASP)

9 Software Development  Do not develop proprietary application software unless doing so will meet a compelling business need that can provide a competitive advantage.  BUILD VS. BUY The basic arguments in the buy-vs.-build debate remain unchanged. WHY BUILD? Avoid painful vendor licensing terms Gain competitive advantage Adapt to new technology, such as grid computing  WHY BUY? Leverage vendors’ economies of scale Gain broader integration capabilities Ensure that code knowledge won’t be lost

10 Software Development Example  Hyundai Information Service North America LLC –IT arm of Hyundai Motor America –Builds own software offshore –Why?  More customization  Small, unique applications  No licensing annoyances –Example: switch from concurrent users to name seat licensing would have raised cost by $3,300 per user for a purchased application

11 Application Service Providers  Software service providers – –Rearden Commerce –JRG Systems  Will host –Customer relationship management (CRM) systems –Travel planning systems –Supply chain management systems –Many more  Advantages –Quick –Easy –Relatively inexpensive  Disadvantage –Won’t get 100% of the features you want or would get with a customized software package

12 Software Development: Programming Languages  Sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules for constructing statements  Allow humans to communicate instructions to be executed by a computer  Syntax: a set of rules associated with a programming language  Different languages have characteristics that make them appropriate for particular types of applications  Compiled into object code that can be run by the processor

13 Networking and Telecommunications  Effective communications are essential to organizational success  Why? –Business processes are supported by software that runs over networks –Must choose right software to support business, then design the right network to support the operation of the software –Processing model will help determine what kind of network you need

14 Basic Processing Strategies  Centralized processing: all processing occurs in a single location or facility  Decentralized processing: processing devices are placed at various remote locations  Distributed processing: computers are placed at remote locations but connected to each other via a network

15 Distributed Processing Options  Terminal-to-host: the application and database reside on one host computer, and the user interacts with the application and data using a “dumb” terminal

16 Distributed Processing Options File or Application Server: the application or database reside on the one host computer, called the file server

17 Distributed Processing Options Client/Server Client: End-user’s computer PC, mobile device, thin client PC, mobile device, thin client Server: Mid-range computer Dedicated to special function such as database server, print server, web server, application server Dedicated to special function such as database server, print server, web server, application server Client and server share in processing task Example, the World Wide Web

18 Telecommuncations –Telecommunications: the electronic transmission of signals for communications –Telecommunications medium: anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device

19 Telecommunications and Networks Elements of a Telecommunications System

20 Transmission Media Wired Transmission Media Types

21 Wired Media Types

22 Wireless Transmission Media Types  Radio Waves –Bluetooth  Short distances only  Relatively slow transmission speed  Developed for inter-device communications –Wi-Fi  Standard supports up to 54Mbps  Supports longer distances than bluetooth  Infrared –Signals sent as light waves –Short distance –Unobstructed line of sight  Microwave –High frequency radio signal –Capable of high-speed transmission –Unobstructed line of sight –Susceptible to interference  Cellular

23 Networks  Computer network: the communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems or devices  Network nodes: the computers and devices on the networks

24 Network Types  Personal area network (PAN)  Local area network (LAN)  Metropolitan area network (MAN)  Wide area network (WAN)  International network

25 Network Types A Typical LAN

26 Network Types A Wide Area Network Is the internet a wide area network?

27 Communications Software and Protocols  Communications software: software that provides a number of important functions in a network, such as error checking and data security –Network operating system (NOS) –Network management software –Communications protocol: a standard set of rules that controls a telecommunications connection  Example, TCP/IP protocol that underlies the Internet

28 The Internet  Internet: a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information  ARPANET –The ancestor of the Internet –A project started by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 1969

29 How the Internet Works  Data is passed in chunks called packets –Internet Protocol (IP): communications standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed –Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): widely used transport-layer protocol that is used in combination with IP by most Internet applications –Uniform Resource Locator (URL): an assigned address on the Internet for each computer

30 How the Internet Works Routing Messages over the Internet

31 Accessing the Internet Several Ways to Access the Internet

32 Internet Service Providers  Internet service provider (ISP): any company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the Internet –Most charge a monthly fee –Many ISPs and online services offer broadband Internet access through digital subscriber lines (DSLs), cable, or satellite transmission

33 Applications that run over the Internet  World Wide Web  Instant Messaging  Email  File Transfer Protocol  Telnet  All of these are –Software applications –Designed for the internet –All assume your computer understands TCP/IP

34 The World Wide Web  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): Protocol that web servers and browsers use to send requests and information  Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the standard page description language for Web pages

35 Intranets and Extranets  Intranet –Internal corporate network built using Internet and World Wide Web standards and products –Used by employees to gain access to corporate information –Slashes the need for paper

36 Intranets and Extranets  Extranet –A network based on Web technologies that links selected resources of a company’s intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners  Virtual private network (VPN): a secure connection between two points across the Internet –Intranets and extranets often run over VPN’s

37 Internet Issues  Privacy –Spyware: hidden files and information trackers that install themselves secretly when you visit some Internet sites –Cookie: a text file that an Internet company can place on the hard disk of a computer system

38 Net Issues  Security –Cryptography: converting a message into a secret code and changing the encoded message back to regular text –Digital signature: encryption technique used to verify the identity of a message sender for processing online financial transactions –Firewall: a device that sits between an internal network and the Internet, limiting access into and out of a network based on access policies

39 Net Issues

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