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Chapter 4 Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets

2 An Overview of Telecommunications
Telecommunications: the electronic transmission of signals for communications Telecommunications medium: anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device

3 Telecommunications System Components

4 Channel Bandwidth Telecommunications professionals consider the capacity of the communications path or channel when they recommend transmission media for a business Channel bandwidth: the rate at which data is exchanged over a communication channel Usually measured in bits per second (bps)

5 Types of Signals Analog signal Continuous waveform
Passes through communications medium Used for voice communications Digital signal Discrete waveform -- Transmits data coded into two discrete states as 1-bits and 0-bits Used for data communications Modem Translates computer’s digital signals into analog and vice versa

6 Communications Media

7 Telecommunications Hardware
Table 4.3: Common Telecommunications Devices

8 Services Digital subscriber line (DSL): telecommunications service that delivers high-speed Internet access to homes and small businesses over the existing phone lines of the local telephone network All major long distance carriers offer wireless telecommunications services that enable you to place phone calls or access the Internet

9 Networks and Distributed Processing
Computer network: the communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems and/or devices Network nodes: the computers and devices on the networks

10 Network Types Personal area network (PAN) Local area network (LAN)
Metropolitan area network (MAN) Wide area network (WAN) International networks Mesh networking

11 Distributed Processing
Centralized processing: all processing occurs in a single location or facility Decentralized processing: processing devices are placed at various remote locations Distributed processing: computers are placed at remote locations but connected to each other via a network

12 Client/Server Systems
Client/Server system: multiple computer platforms are dedicated to special functions, such as database management, printing, communications, and program execution

13 Communications Software and Protocols
Communications protocol: a set of rules that govern the exchange of information over a communications channel Protocols govern several levels of a telecommunications network, such as: Hardware device level Application program level Wireless communications protocols are still evolving as the industry matures

14 Communications Software
Network operating system (NOS): systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows them to communicate with each other Network-management software: software that a manager uses on a networked desktop Monitors the use of individual computers and shared hardware (such as printers) Scans for viruses Ensures compliance with software licenses

15 Use and Functioning of the Internet
Internet: a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information ARPANET The ancestor of the Internet A project started by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 1969 Internet Protocol (IP): communication standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed

16 How the Internet Works The Internet transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another If the receiving computer is on a network to which the first computer is directly connected, it can send the message directly If the receiving computer is not on a network to which the sending computer is connected, the sending computer relays the message to another computer that can forward it Data is passed in chunks called packets Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): widely used transport-layer protocol that is used in combination with IP by most Internet applications Uniform Resource Locator (URL): an assigned address on the Internet for each computer

17 How the Internet Works Accessing the Internet Connect via LAN server
Connect via Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)/Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Connect via an online service Several other ways to connect Example: WAP

18 Internet Service Providers
Internet service provider (ISP): any company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the Internet Most charge a monthly fee Many ISPs and online services offer broadband Internet access through digital subscriber lines (DSLs), cable, or satellite transmission

19 The World Wide Web The Web, WWW, or W3
A menu-based system that uses the client/server model Organizes Internet resources throughout the world into a series of menu pages, or screens, that appear on your computer Hypermedia: tools that connect the data on Web pages, allowing users to access topics in whatever order they want Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the standard page description language for Web pages HTML tags: codes that let the Web browser know how to format text - as a heading, as a list, or as body text - and whether images, sound, and other elements should be inserted

20 Web Browsers Web browser: software that creates a unique, hypermedia-based menu on a computer screen, providing a graphical interface to the Web The menu consists of graphics, titles, and text with hypertext links Popular Web browsers: Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Computer’s Safari

21 Search Engines and Web Research
Search engine: Web search tool Examples:, Most search engines are free Searches can use words, such as AND and OR to refine the search Meta-search engine: submits keywords to several individual search engines and returns results from all these search engines

22 Internet Cell Phones and Handheld Computers
Some cell phones can be connected to the Internet to: Search for information Buy products Chat with business associates and friends Handheld computers and other devices can be connected to the Internet using phone lines or wireless connections, such as Wi-Fi

23 Intranets and Extranets
Internal corporate network built using Internet and World Wide Web standards and products Used by employees to gain access to corporate information Reduces need for paper Extranet A network based on Web technologies that links selected resources of a company’s intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners Virtual private network (VPN): secure connection between two points across the Internet Tunneling: process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the Internet

24 Net Issues Management issues Service and speed issues
No centralized governing body controls the Internet Service and speed issues Web server computers can be overwhelmed by the amount of “hits” (requests for pages) Privacy, fraud, security, and unauthorized Internet sites

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