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Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

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1 Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods
Job Element Method Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Other Trait-Based Worker-Oriented Measures THRESHOLD TRAITS ANALYSIS SYSTEM (TTAS) ABILITY REQUIREMENTS SCALES (E. Fleishman) OCCUPATIONAL REINFORCER PATTERN MEHODS WITH SUBSTANTIAL ATT TO EQUIPMENT Cognitive Task Analysis Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

2 Worker-Oriented Methods
Most “psychological” Focus on KSAOs Os = preferences, values, temperament, personality Job Element Blurs distinction between what gets done and abilities required to do it (elements not the same as FJA term) PAQ Well known in business...elements here means a finite list of things Other trait-based methods TTAS has a comprehensive “global” list of traits Cognitive task analysis Mental processes (where a lot of work is now and in the future) Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

3 Job Element Method (E. Primoff, OPM)
Most similar to work oriented An element is combo of a behavior& evidence for it CONTENT OF ELEMENTS Behaviors: Cognitive, psychomotor and work habits GATHERING INFORMATION Requires experts RATING SCALES SMEs rate on “barely acceptable” to “superior” “trouble likely if not considered” “practical” – to expect incumbent to have DERIVED SCALES Based on previous scales (above) to get “total value”, “item index” (for test), “training value” ASSIGNING ELEMENTS TO CATEGORIES 5 levels of importance RESEARCH ON JEM: THE J-COEFFICIENT A ‘validity’ coefficient derived from human judgments Can be useful is anyone takes the time to use the method REMARKS ON JEM An ability is whatever it takes to do it (circular reasoning) Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

4 Position Analysis Questionnaire (E. McCormick) S-O-R theory
Requires expert job analyst Elements apply to all jobs Why is this an advantage for job evaluation? DEVLOPMENT AND STRUCTURE OF THE PAQ 194 items (now 300) 187 for attributes; 7 for pay concerns Six major divisions (see table 3.4 p 74) PAQ RESULTS Good for job evaluation and FLSA USES OF PAQ (objectives) Standardize an approach to ID worker requirements Job evaluation / disability considerations Can this address any issues with your job? RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Better agreement with same job/ less between jobs Related to GATB mean scores (163 jobs) RESEARCH ON THE PAQ: COMMON KNOWLEDGE EFFECTS Inter-rater reliability in ‘90s for different types of raters But the rater needs to be very familiar with the job itself RECENT PAQ DEVELOPMENTS cDOT Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

5 Other Trait-Based Worker-Oriented Measures
THRESHOLD TRAITS ANALYSIS SYSLTEM (33 traits) F. Lopez (‘70) Theoretically coherent Trait oriented Multipurpose Legally defensible For selection / training / description/ evaluation Two sections: 1. can do 2. will do Is this applicable to your job? ABILITY REQUIREMENTS SCALES E. Fleishman & Mumford Generic human abilities Abilities linked to tests for them For selection and to build job families OCCUPATIONAL REINFORCER PATTERN Borgen, ‘88 Individual differences in what they need (e.g. recognition, working together / alone) METHODS WITH SUBSTANTIAL ATTENTION TO EQUIPMENT AET (ergonomics) Job Components Inventory (entry level jobs; vocational guidance; training) Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

6 Cognitive Task Analysis
Cognitive psych: Mental activities must be inferred Often difference (cognitive) ways to achieve the same outcome TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL Declarative vs. Procedural (what the difference?) Generative knowledge (finding new relationships) Self knowledge (know your limitations!) K (acquired information) v. S (procedural) Automated skills (fast and effortless) Representational skills (mental models) Decision making skills (Kahneman’s system I and system 2) How experts complete their jobs Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

7 Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods
COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS METHODS Interviewing Team communication Diagramming Verbal report Psychological scaling A SIMPLE EXAMPLE TSA screener (they are missing a lot these days) the experienced ones develop a database of three dimensional rotated objects RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY –difficult to assess REMARKS ON COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS -Coming soon to a job near your What is a task in your job that requires cognitive task analysis? Chapter 3 Worker Oriented Methods

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