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Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management seventh edition Cascio & Aguinis PowerPoint Slides developed by Ms. Elizabeth Freeman University of South.

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Presentation on theme: "Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management seventh edition Cascio & Aguinis PowerPoint Slides developed by Ms. Elizabeth Freeman University of South."— Presentation transcript:

1 Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management seventh edition Cascio & Aguinis PowerPoint Slides developed by Ms. Elizabeth Freeman University of South Carolina Upstate Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-1

2 Chapter 9 Analyzing Jobs and Work Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-2

3 Chapter 9 Analyzing Jobs and Work Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-3

4 What does it mean to analyze a job? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-4

5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Descriptions (work to be done) + Job Specifications (necessary personal characteristics) _______________________________________________________ = JOB ANALYSIS 9-5

6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Analysis Issues Is the concept of “Job” a social artifact? Will all employed workers be self-employed? Just what is the impact of the Internet on human resources? Do we continue to need traditional job analyses? 9-6

7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall How do you use job analysis information? 9-7

8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Analysis Uses 1. Organizational Design 2. Human Resource Management 3. Work & Equipment Design 4. Additional Uses 9-8

9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1. Organization Design Organizing work flow Human resource planning Role definitions 9-9

10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2. HR Management * Job evaluation * Recruitment * Selection * Placement * Orientation * Training & Development * Appraisals * Promotions * Career Planning * Labor Relations 9-10

11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3. Work & Equipment Design * Engineering design * Job design * Methods improvement * Safety 9-11

12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4. Additional Uses * Vocational guidance * Rehabilitation counseling * Job classification systems * HR research 9-12

13 What is the language of job analysts? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-13

14 Element – smallest unit of observable work Task – distinct activity for specific purpose Duty – large segment of work Position – one or more duties for 1 person Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-14

15 Job – group of positions w/ similar duties Job Family – group of jobs w/ similar worker characteristics Occupation/vocation – similar jobs, different organizations, different times Career – sequence of positions, jobs, occupations of 1 person during working life Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-15

16 How do you complete a job analysis? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-16

17 There are many ways to analyze jobs. The purpose of the analysis will influence the type of job analysis to be completed. Examples include: determination of competitive salary or determination of equipment needs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-17

18 Job Analysis Techniques 1. Activities / attributes 2. General / specific 3. Qualitative / quantitative 4. Taxonomy-based / blank slate 5. Observers / incumbents or supervisors 6. KSAs / KSAOs 7. Single job / multiple jobs comparisons 8. Descriptive / prescriptive Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-18

19 Job Analysis Techniques Explained 1. Activities / attributes: what gets done = activities (work, tasks) how it gets done = attributes (worker) Job Analysis Techniques Explained 1. Activities / attributes: what gets done = activities (work, tasks) how it gets done = attributes (worker) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-19

20 Job Analysis Techniques Explained 2. General / specific: brief descriptions for comparisons between jobs detailed as in individual assessments for employment Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-20

21 Job Analysis Techniques Explained 3. Qualitative / quantitative: narrative – career planning numeric scales – job comparisons Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-21

22 4. Taxonomy-based / blank slate: Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Fleishman Ability Requirements Scales (FJAS) General work activities, broad range of jobs Specific tasks lists for unique jobs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Analysis Techniques Explained 9-22

23 Job Analysis Techniques Explained 5. Observers / incumbents or supervisors: trained job analysts people in the jobs (incumbents) supervisors of those in the jobs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-23

24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Analysis Techniques Explained 6.KSAs / KSAOs Knowledge Skills Abilities (KSA) Knowledge Skills Abilities & Other Characteristics (KSAO) Attribute-oriented analysis limited versus necessary attributes plus personality traits, values, and attitudes 9-24

25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Analysis Techniques Explained 7.Single job / multiple jobs comparisons: defining an entry level position defining a career path within an organization 9-25

26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Analysis Techniques Explained 8.Descriptive / prescriptive: typical to describe existing job may be defining future jobs or may reflect strategic job changes 9-26

27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job analyses result in job descriptions &/or job specifications 9-27

28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What does it mean to describe a job? 9-28

29 To describe a job is to determine 1. Job Title 2. Job Activities & Procedures 3. Working Conditions & Physical Environment 4. Social Environment 5. Conditions of Employment Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-29

30 1. Job Title – for reporting purposes 2. Job Activities & Procedures – tasks, materials, machinery, interactions, supervision 3. Working Conditions & Physical Environment – heat, lighting, noise, indoor/outdoor, hazards, office space Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-30

31 4. Social Environment – work group, interactions 5. Conditions of employment – hours, wages, benefits, opportunities for promotion Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-31

32 With the job analysis completed & the job description developed, what about job specifications? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-32

33 JOB SPECIFICATIONS may or may not = JOB DESCRIPTIONS Job Specifications define the minimums necessary to perform job (Minimum qualifications: MQs) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-33

34 Job Specifications – May be used as guidelines for recruitment, selection, placement, development May be included in Job Descriptions May be separate documents Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-34

35 th Remember: when developing minimum qualifications (MQ’s), the MQs must be fair, equitable, valid, and reliable Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-35

36 MQ’s legally accepted Methodology: 1. Develop tasks list & KSAs for job 2. Identify group of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) 3. Separate groups of SMEs 4. SME groups rate the tasks & KSAs 5. SMEs meet to give opinions 6. Job Analysts produce MQ profiles 7. SMEs describe barely acceptable employee & revise MQ profile as needed Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-36

37 With regard to MQs reliability & validity Reliability = consistency Task data shows higher reliability than work data Analysts show higher reliability ratings than incumbents Validity = performance accuracy Validity ratings harder to quantify The greater the descriptive data, the higher the validity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-37

38 How do you collect the job observation data to produce the analyses’ descriptions and specifications? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-38

39 1. Direct observations of job incumbents by analysts 2. Performing & documenting the job by analysts Both assume: job is stable over time & situation observations do not distort the job Neither appropriate for analytical jobs Functional Job Analyses (FJA) useful what worker does what gets done Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-39

40 FJA – functional job analysis Position – job title Duty: general responsibility Task: exactly what gets done What – to/for whom, to/for what Why – purpose of action How – tools, instructions Worker Functions – Data People Things Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-40

41 3 Compile 4 Compute 5 Copy 6 Compare More about FJA Worker functions 0 Synthesize 1 Coordinate 2 Analyze 3 Compile 4 Compute 5 Copy 6 Compare Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-41

42 3 Supervise 4 Divert 5 Persuade 6 Speak-signal 7 Serve 8 Take instruction More about FJA People functions 0 Mentor 1 Negotiate 2 Instruct 3 Supervise 4 Divert 5 Persuade 6 Speak-signal 7 Serve 8 Take instruction Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-42

43 More about FJA Things 0 Set up 1 Precision 2 Operate, control 3 Drive 4 Manipulate 5 Tend 6 Feed 7 Handle Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-43

44 FJAs result in coded jobs can be tracked for changes over time can be valued for compensation can be evaluated for training needs can determine education levels can be objective rather than biased Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-44

45 How do you make sure that FJA interviews produce necessary information? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9-45

46 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Questions should: be related to purpose of analysis. be clear & specific. not lead to implied answers. not indicate socially acceptable answers. not ask for information that interviewee would not logically have. not ask for intimate information. 9-46

47 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall FJA i nterviews improve when: Interview several job incumbents Have several interviewers conduct same interview with same interviewees Have several interviewers interview different incumbents Conduct interviews over time Conduct interviews over varying situations 9-47

48 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall OTHER FJA INTERVIEW IMPROVEMENTS 1. Subject Matter Expert (SME) Panels 2. Questionnaires 9-48

49 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1.SME Panels: May include up to 10 – 20 % of job incumbents, supervisors Should represent race, gender, age, location, culture, shift, & situations Openly discuss – best, good, & worst per position - training needs - necessary KSAOs 9-49

50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2. Questionnaires (task inventories & checklists): Can be administered to large groups Can collect quantifiable data May be expensive to develop May be subject to misunderstandings 9-50

51 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Another important job analysis tool Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) more behavior oriented than task oriented uses statistical analyses for objectivity 9-51

52 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall More PAQ information 194 job items or job elements 5 categories * information input * mental processes * work output * relationships with other people * job context 9-52

53 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall PAQ limitations better suited to blue-collar manufacturing jobs behavioral similarities may mask task differences requires college-level reading ability 9-53

54 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Other job analysis tools 1. Job Element Inventory (JEI) 2. Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS) 3. Critical Incidents 4. Job Analysis Wizard 5. Personality Dimensions a. NEO Job Profiler b. Personality-related Position Requirements Form (PPRF) 6. Strategic Job Analyses 7. Competency Modeling 9-54

55 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1. Job Element Inventory (JEI) developed to address reading level 153 items structured questionnaire 10 th grade reading level 9-55

56 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Fleishman Job Analysis Survey known as the F-JAS describes jobs by minimum abilities cognitive psychomotor physical abilities sensory / perceptual interactions / social knowledge/skills/abilities 9-56

57 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Critical Incidents anecdotes from incumbents, supervisors, observers particularly good performances particularly bad performances indicates both static & dynamic aspects of jobs 9-57

58 Job Analysis Wizard (JAW) thousands of different work elements broad work- and worker-related dimensions fuzzy logic to determine how new knowledge fits with existing job knowledge automation of entire job analysis process Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-58

59 Personality Dimensions & Job Analysis Interest is in personality as an indicator of job performance NEO Job Profiler based on the Big 5 PPRF (personality-related position requirements form) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-59

60 Competency Modeling Job Analyses Worker oriented rather than job focused Relates worker characteristics to organizational goals 17 comparison areas 10 areas of evaluative criteria Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-60

61 A final source for job analysis information Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-61

62 Occupational Information – from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to the O*Net Occupational Information – from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to the O*Net first published in U. S. 1930s last published 1991 > 12,000 jobs O*Net is job specific does not allow comparisons for similarities & differences Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-62

63 O*Net Information Categories Experience Worker requirements Occupational requirements Occupation-specific requirements Worker characteristics Occupational characteristics Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-63

64 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-64


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