2EVOLUTION Evolution – change over time Evolution is a theory (a well- supported, testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world)
3CHARLES DARWINContributed more to our understanding of evolution than anyoneJourneyed around the world on the HMS Beagle and made observations and collected evidenceCollected fossils (preserved remains of ancient organisms)The islands that influenced Darwin the most were the Galapagos Islands (a group of islands with very different environments)
4Other Scientists that influenced Darwin: 1. Hutton & Lyell studied geological change to show that the Earth changes over time2. Lamarck was the first scientist to recognize that living things change over time3. Malthus reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient living space and food for everyone (war, famine and disease help keep this growth in check)
5Lamarck’s ideas: 1. Organisms constantly strive to improve themselves 2. Most-used body structures develop, but unused ones waste away3. Once a structure is modified by use or disuse, the modification is inherited by the organism’s offspring (inheritance of acquired characteristics)ALL OF THESE WERE PROVEN WRONG, but Lamarck paved the way for the work of later biologists.
7CHARLES DARWINIn 1859, Darwin published the results of his work in a book – On the Origin of Species – in which he proposed a theory called Natural SelectionDefinitions:Variation – differences between individual members of a population (ex. Color of fur, shape of teeth)Adaptation – an inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival
8Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection: 1. There is a variation within a population2. Some variations are favorable3. Not all young produced in each generation can survive (struggle for existence)4. Individuals that survive and reproduce are those with favorable variations (survival of the fittest)
9EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTIONAccording to evolutionary theory, all life originated from a common ancestor.Common descent – the theory that all species were derived from common ancestors
111. FossilsThe fossil record reveals changes in populations over time and supports the theory of evolution.Scientists can calculate a fossil’s age by using radioactive dating or relative dating (we will discuss this later)The fossil record is incomplete, but it still shows us relationships between species and how their structures have changed over time.Fossils are mostly found in sedimentary rock.
122. Homologous Structures Homologous structures – structures that have different mature forms, but develop from the same tissuesEx. Arms, wings, and flippers are all constructed from the same basic bonesAnalogous structures – structures that share common function but NOT common structureEx. Wing of bee & birdVestigial structures – structures reduced in size and often unusedEx. Leg/hip bones in pythons or appendix in humans
16GENETICS & EVOLUTIONGene pool – consists of all the genes that are present in a populationRelative frequency – the number of times that an allele occurs in a gene poolEx. In a mouse population, the dominant allele for black fur may appear 40% and the recessive allele for brown fur may appear 60%In genetic terms, evolution is any change in the relative frequency of alleles in a population
17GENETIC VARIATION 2 Main Sources of Genetic Variation: 1. Mutations – change in a sequence of DNA2. Gene shuffling that results from sexual reproduction
18DEFINITIONSSpecies – interbreeding populations of organisms that can produce fertile offspringSpeciation – formation of a new speciesReproductive Isolation – when members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
19How do organisms become isolated? 1. Behavioral isolation – when 2 populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies that involve behavior2. Geographic isolation – when 2 populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains or bodies of water
20Speciation in Darwin’s Finches Darwin found over a dozen different species of finches on the Galapagos Islands that all evolved from a common ancestorHow?A few finches (original species) flew or were blown to one of the Galapagos IslandsThen some birds migrated to neighboring islands and because the environments were different they adapted to their own environments and became separate species
22DARWIN’S FINCHES Darwin’s Finches are an example of adaptive radiation Adaptive radiation is when a single species has evolved into diverse forms that live in different ways
23PATTERNS OF EVOLUTIONGradualism – small genetic changes that occur slowly within a populationPunctuated Equilibrium – suggests that populations remain genetically stable for long periods of time, interrupted by brief periods of rapid genetic change (ex. Peppered moth)
24Convergent EvolutionThe process by which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another as they adapt to the same kind of environmentExample: fishes and dolphinsStructures such as dolphins fins and a fish’s tail fin, look and function in the same way, but they do NOT share a common evolutionary history. These are called analogous structures.
25Divergent EvolutionThe process where organisms within a species become very different and will no longer interbreed usually because they live in different environmentsExample: Red fox and kit fox - similarities in structure indicate that they had a common ancestor, but as they adapted to different environments, the appearance of the two species diverged.
26CoEvolutionThe process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time become so dependent on each other that they cannot survive or reproduce successfully without the otherExample: Flowers and insects
27Convergent, Divergent or CoEvolution? Divergent EvolutionCoEvolutionConvergent Evolution