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Chapter 13: Descriptive and Exploratory Research

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1 Chapter 13: Descriptive and Exploratory Research
Descriptive Exploratory Experimental Describe Find Cause Populations Relationship and Effect Case study Developmental Research Normative Research Qualitative research Correlational, Predictive research

2 Descriptive/Exploratory Research
Purpose: To describe a phenomenon To explore factors that influence and interact with it Descriptive Research Document conditions, attitudes, or characteristics of individuals or groups of individuals

3 Descriptive Research Exploratory Research:
Focuses on the relationships among these factors Descriptive and Exploratory Research: May be combined, depending on the research question Are considered nonexperimental or observational research (no data manipulation)

4 Retrospective and Prospective Research
Retrospective Research Data have been collected in the past Prospective Research Data are collected in the present (longitudinal studies) Prospective research is more reliable than retrospective

5 Descriptive Research Purpose of descriptive studies:
Document the nature of existing variables How they change overtime Structured around a set of guiding questions Descriptive data provide the basis for classifying data and for further questions

6 Case Studies Purpose In-depth description of an individual’s condition or responses to treatment Can also focus on a group, institution, or other social unit Case series- an expansion of a case study (several similar cases are reported)

7 Case Studies Most often:
Case studies emphasize unusual patient problems or diagnoses that present interesting clinical challenges A case study is an intensive investigation designed to a analyze & understand factors important to the:

8 Case Studies Etiology, care, and outcome of subject’s:
Background, present status, and responses to intervention

9 Case Studies It begins with a: full history, delineation problems, symptoms, and prior treatments, demographic and social factors that a relevant to the subject’s care and prognosis

10 Case Studies Literature should be cited to support treatment
Documentation of all interventions, subject’s responses, and and10 follow-up should be complete Data could be quantitative or qualitative, or both

11 Case Studies Major Contributions: Information generates hypothesis
A thorough analysis of a single situation may lead to discovery of non obvious relationships “Case law” may lead to a conceptual form

12 Case Studies Provides an opportunity for understanding the totality of an individual’s experience Limitations: Limited generalizability from one case to another due to lack of control

13 Developmental Research
Involves the description of developmental change and the sequencing of behavior in people over time (Erickson, Piaget) Methods used to document change: 1. Longitudinal study- follows a cohort of subjects over time

14 Developmental Research
Advantage of longitudinal method: Ability to accumulate data through intensive documentation of growth and change in the same individuals Disadvantages: Money, long term commitment, attrition, and confounding variables

15 Developmental Research
2. Cross-Sectional Method- studies a stratified group of subjects at one-point in time This method is used more often than longitudinal method because its efficiency as subjects are tested once at the same time

16 Developmental Research
Disadvantages of Cross-Sectional method: Selection of subjects (results reflect extraneous factors) “Cohort Effects” (effects are not age-specific but rather generation or time of birth)

17 Developmental Research
Provides valuable information for generating correlational or experimental hypothesis/es Generates developmental theories

18 Normative Studies Purpose:
To describe typical or standard values for characteristics of a given population Directed toward: A specific age group, gender, occupation, culture, or disability

19 Normative Research Norms are usually expressed in terms of:
Mean (within a range of acceptable values) Normal nerve conduction velocity of the Ulnar nerve is expressed as 57.5 meters/sec, with a normal range of 49.5 to 63.6 m/s

20 Normative Research The “norm” is used as a basis for: Prescribing corrective interventions Predicting future performance Researchers must be aware of sampling biases

21 Qualitative Research Quantitative Methods: Qualitative Methods:
Based on ‘Logical positivism” Concept/constructs can be measured and assigned numbers Qualitative Methods: Based on observing the “complex nature of humans”

22 Qualitative Research Purpose: To understand the patient’s perspective
To describe how individuals perceive their own experiences within a specific context To seek an understanding why something occurs (Phantom pain)

23 Qualitative Research Methods of Data collection:
Interviews Observations Data Analysis and Interpretation Data are recorded in the narrative Content analysis Themes

24 Qualitative Research “Measurement error” Sampling Size
In terms of judgments not numerical equivalency Sampling Size

25 Exploratory Research The systematic investigation of relationship among two or more variables Purpose: To describe relationships To predict the effects of one variable on another To test relationships that are supported by clinical theory

26 Exploratory Research Exploratory research is guided by a set of hypotheses Operational definition Statistical testing

27 Exploratory Research The foundation of exploratory research is the process of: 1. Correlation- Measures the degree of association among variables A function of covariation of the data (the extent that one variable varies directly or indirectly with another variable)

28 Exploratory Research The strength of this relationship is measured by a correlation statistic Pearson Correlation r (how close the correlation coefficient is to +1or -1 2. Regression- Predicts the score on an outcome variable by knowing the values of other variables

29 Chapter 13 Now you know all about Descriptive and Exploratory Research

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