Introduction I. Some interesting facts about language
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1 Introduction I. Some interesting facts about language II. What is linguistics?III. Why study linguistics?IV. Emphasis on spoken languageV. Basic attributes of language (1) (2)
2 Some Interesting Facts About Language Number of languages: about 6,809 languages in the world, about 50% of theses are dying outTen most widely speaking languages:1. Mandarin Chinese 2. Spanish 3. English 4. Bengali 5. Hindi/Urdu 6. Portuguese Russian 8. Japanese 9. German Chinese-Wu
3 What Is Linguistics? Definition the systematic & scientific study of languagePurpose: to learn the different aspects of languageHow it is structured; how we produce & understand it in ongoing time; how we learn it; how it developed in humans; how we use it every day & what we use it for; how it works in our minds and in society.Study range of linguistics1. Phonology (Phonetics & Phonemics)2. Syntax (Morphology & Grammar)3. Semantics (Meaning)4. Pragmatics (the interpretation in context)
4 Why Study Linguistics?To improve your English through study of subject in Eng.Exploiting a language’s total resources to create literatureTo learn something about psychologyLang. is very important to everything you do.To examine your own belief about lang. in general, lang. in particular, and especially, speakers.To learn to observe & analyzeTo improve language teaching & learning
5 Emphasis on Spoken Language Speech comes early.Writing is not always present.Changes reflected slowly in writing.Similar writing system can be used for very different languages, or more than one system for one language.
6 Basic Attributes of Language (1) Language is random. (Nash 4~5)*Arbitrariness (Yule 21~22)Displacement (Yule 20~21)Language is a body of (very productive and creative) knowledge. (Nash 3)*Productivity (Yule 22~23)Language is social and cultural. (Nash 5~6)*Cultural transmission (Yule 24)Language has a series of levels, & governed by rules. (Nash 3~4)* Duality (or double articulation) (Yule 25)Discreteness (Yule 24)* Above six attributes can only be found in human language.
7 Basic Attributes of Language (2) Language uses sounds (Nash) * Vocal-auditory channel (Yule)Reciprocity (Yule)Specialization (Yule)Non-directionality (Yule)Rapid fade (Yule)Language is communication (Nash)Language is human (Nash)Language is a system (Nash)Languages are more similar than they are different (Nash)Language changes (Nash)Language is accompanied by gestures (Nash)