Matakuliah: G0922/Introduction to Linguistics Tahun: 2008 Session 1 Introduction
Bina Nusantara University 3 Learning Outcomes Students will be able to explain the advantages of learning linguistics Students will be able to mention the aspects of languages Students will be able to explain the difference between speech and writing
Bina Nusantara University 4 Material Outline –Definition of Language –Aspects of Language –Language and Medium –Linguistics fields
Bina Nusantara University 5 Language Definition: –A system of arbitrary sound system used by the members of a social group to work together, communicate one another and to identify themselves.
Bina Nusantara University 6 Aspects of Language 1. Language is a system E.g. I go, she goes, he goes. (subject + verb) 2. Language is a sign system the sign represents something e.g. a pen represents an instrument for writing 3. Language is meaningful It is related to the aspects of the speakers – the world of the speakers – the environment, the nature etc. 4. Language is conventional The sign is understood by the speakers based on their agreement. e.g. sign 4 indicate four not three. 5. Language is a system of sounds 6. Language is arbitrary There is no relationship between the sign and the entity that it points at
Bina Nusantara University 7 Aspects of Language 7. Language is productive A limited number of signs can produce unlimited number of other signs E.g. from a limited alphabet, we can produce unlimited sounds, words and pieces of writings 8. Language is unique Every language has its own characteristics 9. Language is universal Every language has at least one aspect that is the same as other languages E.g. the sounds : a,i,o 10. Language is used for communication 11. Language is used to identify oneself.
Bina Nusantara University 8 Language and medium The two main mediums of language are speech and writing Speech : - composed of sounds - make use of intonation, pitch, rhythm, tempo. - Produced effortlessly – no tools required - transitory - perceived by the ear - addressee present - immediate feedback - meaning helped by context, body movement, gestures, - spontaneous - associative
Bina Nusantara University 9 Language and Medium Writing - composed by letters/signs - makes use of punctuation and other graphological devices such as italics. - produced with effort – tools required - relatively permanent - perceived by the eye - addressee absent - feedback delayed - meaning must be made clear within the context - not spontaneous - logical
Bina Nusantara University 10 Grammatical Aspects of Language Grammar include everything speakers know about their language Phonetics : The sounds of language Phonology : The sound patterns of language Morphology : The rules of word formation of language Syntax : The Sentence patterns of Language Semantics : The system of meaning of Language
Bina Nusantara University 11 Linguistics and other fields Sociolinguistics : the relation between language and society Psycholinguistic : the study of language in understanding the human mind (language and psychology) Translation: the changing of one language to another Applied linguistics: the ways in which people teach and learn languages