Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Photosynthesis Process in which light energy is used to drive the conversion of CO 2 to carbohydrate. 6H 2 O* + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 * light
Importance of Photosynthesis Source of atmospheric oxygen –Earth’s atm: 78% N 2, 21% O 2, 0.035% CO 2 (or 350 ppm & rising) Source of energy for food chain –photoautotrophs vs. heterotrophs Direct/indirect involvement in all products Maintain stable ecosystem
Photosynthesis and Transpiration Whole Plant Perspective CO 2 enters leaf through open stomates; water is lost CO 2 is converted to carbohydrate (photosynthate) in the leaf and transported as sucrose in phloem Water is taken up by roots and transported via xylem Loss of water from the leaf via stomates is evapotranspiration
Leaf Cross-Section Cuticle Epidermis guard cells & stomate Palisade parenchyma Spongy parenchyma
Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis; several per cell Bounded by 2 smooth membranes Inner thylakoid membrane system –grana = stacks of thylakoids –contain PS pigments –site of light reactions Stroma –liquid matrix –site of “dark” reactions (CO 2 conversion)
3 Processes in Photosynthesis Absorption of light energy –pigments in thylakoids Light Reactions –pigments & proteins in thylakoids –generates ATP and NADPH “Dark” Reactions –enzymes in stroma –reduce CO 2 to carbohydrates using ATP & NADPH
3 Processes in Photosynthesis (1) light O 2 CO 2 sugar starch H2OH2O (2) Light Reactions (3) Dark Reactions NADPH ATP
Light Striking Leaf Reflected back to atmosphere Passes through leaf back to atmosphere Absorbed by the leaf and used for PS
GAMMA RAYS X-RAYS UV V INFRARED RADIO WAVES ENERGY WAVELENGTH Visible Light 380 nm 430 nm 650 nm 750 nm
PAR PAR = Photosynthetically Active Radiation 400-700 nm wavelengths PPF = photosynthetic photon flux PPF at full sun = 2000 µmol/m 2 /sec
Action Spectrum Absorption Spectrum
Photosynthetic Pigments Chlorophylls –Chl a –Chl b Carotenoids –carotenes –xanthophylls Reaction Center Pigments –PSI [P700] and PSII [P680] Chl a Accessory Pigments –Chl a –Chl b –carotenes –xanthophylls
Chlorophyll Chl a in all higher plants Chl b also in most higher plants Chl c or d replaces chl b in some algae Chl: porphyrin-like ring (loose e - ’s) and phytol tail to anchor it in thylakoid membrane Center atom of Mg surrounded by 4 N Fe necessary for the synthesis of chl
Chlorophyll a CHO Reaction Center Pigment PSI and PSII polar head phytol tail
chlorophyll carotenoids thylakoid membrane
© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc.
All rights reserved.