Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protists use the energy from sunlight."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protists use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar. Cellular respiration then converts sugar into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things.
Photosynthesis Conversion of light energy to chemical bond energy Associated with the green pigment, chlorophyll Equation:
Plants Plants are the only photosynthetic organisms that have leaves. A leaf is basically a solar collector full of photosynthetic cells.
Leaves Water enters the root and is transported up to the leaves through specialized plant cells known as xylem. Land plants (which risk drying out) have structures called stomata that allow for gas exchange. However, while open, water still escapes.
Light Light is composed of small particles that travel as waves Radiation varies in wavelength Red – longer wavelengths Violet – shorter wavelengths
Light Light can also behave as particles Photons – packets of energy When a molecule absorbs a photon of light energy, one electron is energized
Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a pigment Pigment is any substance that absorbs light. Chlorophyll – green pigment common to all photosynthetic cells Color is from the wavelength of light reflected Different types of chlorophyll Accessory pigments – absorb different wavelengths of light
Pigments All photosynthetic organisms have chlorophyll a Chlorophyll a absorbs its energy from Violet-Blue and Red-Orange wavelengths Green/Yellow is reflected Accessory pigments: chlorophyll b, carotenoids – absorb other wavelengths
Chloroplasts Have a double membrane Inner membrane encloses the stroma (area between membranes) Thylakoids are a third set of membranes enclosing the thylakoid interior space Stacks of thylakoids = grana Chlorophyll and other pigments located in the thylakoid membranes
Prokaryotes lack chloroplasts Thylakoids are still present, but without chloroplast structures Thylakoid membranes are formed from infoldings of the plasma membrane
Light-Dependent Reactions Light excites the electrons in chlorophyll a to a higher energy state In a series of reactions the energy is converted (along an electron transport process) into ATP and NADPH. Water is split in the process, releasing oxygen as a by-product of the reaction. The ATP and NADPH are used to make C-C bonds in the Light Independent Process (Dark Reactions)
Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Reactions) Not driven by light Use products from Light Dependent reactions CO2 is captured and modified with the addition of Hydrogen to form carbohydrates