2Learning Objectives1. Explain how organizations support business activities by using information technologies2. Describe what enterprise systems are how they have evolvedExplain the difference between internally and externally focused software applicationsUnderstand and utilize the keys to successfully implementing enterprise systems.
3System CategoriesEnterprise-wide Systemsaka Enterprise Systems, are systems that allow companies to integrate information across operations on a company-wide basisInterorganizational Systems (IOS)Systems that communicate across organizational boundaries who’s goal is to streamline information flow from one company to another
4Enterprise Systems – Within the Organization Example – Order Process and Information Flow
5Interorganizational Systems – Across Organizations Example – Order Process and Information Flow
6The Value Chain –Internally Focused Used to identify the flow of information through a set of business activities. It identifies two types of activities, primary and support
7The Value Chain - Primary Activities Functional areas within an organization that process inputs and produce outputs. These activities may vary widely based on the unique requirements of a company’s industryPrimary Activities include:Inbound Logistics – receiving and stocking raw materials, parts, productsOperations/Manufacturing – processing orders and raw materials into finished productOutbound Logistics – distribution of the finished product to customersMarketing and Sales – creating demand for the product (pre-sales activities)Customer Service – providing support for the product or customer (post-sales activities)
8The Value Chain - Support Activities Support activities are business activities that enable Primary Activities These activities can be unique by industry but are generally more typical across industriesSupport Activities include:Infrastructure – hardware and software that must be implemented to support applications for primary activitiesHuman Resources – employee management activities: hiring, interview scheduling, and benefits managementTechnology Development – the design and development of applications that support the organizationProcurement – purchase of goods or services that are required as inputs to primary activities
9A Value System – Externally Focused A connection of value chains across organizationsAllows the flow of information between organizations to support business activitiesUpstream flow is information received from another organization (i.e. from company A to Company B above)Downstream Flow is information sent to another organization (i.e. from Company B to Company C above)
10Options for Enterprise Systems – Packaged vs. Custom Packaged Applications“Off the Shelf” computer applications purchased from a vendor or the company that created the system (i.e. Quicken or MS Money for financial applications)Packaged Key CharacteristicsBest Use - standardized, repetitive tasksCost Effectiveness – lower cost because vendors can create once and then sell many copies to othersOrganizational Fit – may not be well suited for tasks that are unique to a particular business or industryMaintenance – the vendor makes the changes and then sends the updates to its customer on a periodic basis. The customer does not control this schedule
11Options for Enterprise Systems – Packaged vs. Custom Custom Applications“Custom-built” computer applications created by the organization or a third party (e.g. a consulting organization)Custom Key CharacteristicsBest Use - unique business process to an organizationCost Effectiveness – much higher cost due to the one-time creation of the applicationsOrganizational Fit – excellent as they are designed to fit a specific business processMaintenance – all changes are created and implemented by the organization using the application
12Enterprise System Evolution Standalone SystemsIntegrated Systems(Intraorganizational)(Interorganizational)System Types
13Enterprise Systems – Stand-alone or Legacy Stand Alone (Legacy) SystemsA single system or groups of systems, designed to each support one or a few business functions (e.g. accounting system or a manufacturing system, etc.)Stand Alone (Legacy) SystemsLittle or no integration with other organizational systems. If integration exists, it is usually in batch (i.e. the accounting system gets updates from manufacturing system once a day or weekOrganizational fit may be better than integrated packages due to the focus on one function and that they have been highly modified over timeCustomization and the age of these systems make them difficult to support due to the complexity, use of older or obscure languages, etc.
14Enterprise Systems - Legacy System Example Legacy (stand-alone) Systems – information is not readily shared between systems (i.e. Inbound Logistics inventory information shared with Operations)
15Enterprise Resource Planning Integrated Packages (Enterprise Resource Planning)Richly functional systems designed to support many organizational functions (e.g. accounting and finance)ERP Key CharacteristicsInternally focused systems designed to support the internal operations of the organizationHighly integrated systems sharing a common data warehouse for information sharing across functions, using real-time updatesOrganizational fit may be less for individual departments but the integrated sharing of information usually outweighs these issuesUsually packaged applications supported by the vendor utilizing a common user interfaceCustomization is discouraged but these systems have the flexibility to support other outside applications using the common data repository and interfaces
16Enterprise Systems – Integrated System Example Integrated Systems – Information is stored in a single data repository and can be accessed and updated by all functional systems (e.g. Operations)
17Choosing an ERP System - Issues ERP Systems are:Supplied by multiple vendors including SAP, Baan, Oracle, etc., with each having their own unique features and structuresPackaged systems that are following a one size-fits all strategy which means they may not support all functions as well as a custom systemSimilar but are also different. They should be selected based on factors including control, business requirements, and best practices
18Choosing an ERP System – Selection Factors Control refers to where the power lies related to computing and decision support systems (centralized vs. decentralized) in selecting systems, developing policies and procedures, etc. (who will decide?)Business Requirements refers to the system’s capabilities and how they meet organizational needs through the use of software modules or groups of business functionality (what do you need?)Best Practices refers to the degree to which the software incorporates industry standard methods for doing business which can cause a need for significant business processes reengineering (how much change is required?)
20ERP and Business Process Reengineering A systematic, structured improvement approach by all or part of an organization whereby people critically examine, rethink, and redesign business processes in order to achieve dramatic improvements in one or more performance measures (e.g. quality, cycle time, cost)Hammer and Champy, (“Reenginerring the Corporation”)“The radical redesign of an organization was sometimes necessary in order to lower costs and increase quality and that the information technology was the key enabler for that radical change”
21Business Process Reengineering Steps in Business Process ReengineeringDevelop a vision for the organization that specifies business objectives (e.g. reduced costs, shortend time to market, improved quality, etc.)Identify critical processes that are to be redesignedUnderstand and measure the existing processes as a baseline for future improvementsIdentify ways that information technology can be used to improve processesDesign and implement a prototype of the new process(es)
22BPR Today – Observations and Research Many large failures exist in large scale Business Process Reengineering implementations. To be successful and organizations must have:Senior management supportA shared organizational visionRealistic expectations of outcomesParticipants empowered to reengineerThe right people participatingSound management practicesAppropriate fundingBPR failures can be tracked back to the lack of one or more of these factors in implementation!
23BPR Today – Observations and Research Large bodies of research are available on the role of BRP and BPR implementations. Some of this research has come to the following conclusions:Reengineering and related organizational issues are as important as the technical implementation issues (Kumar and Van Hellersberg, 2000; Markus and Tanis, 2000)Managers in many cases must choose between making the ERP system fit the organization or the organization fit the ERP system (Soh, Sia, Tay-Yoh, 2000)For an ERP system to help transform the organization and gain new competitive capabilities, a full organizational and operational change is required (Willcocks and Sykes, 2000)In order to be successful, manager must first transform the organization and then implement the ERP system
24Enterprise Systems – Integrated (Interorganizational) Integrated PackagesRichly functional systems designed to support externally focused functions (Upstream – Supply Chain Management and Downstream – Customer Relationship Management)Integrated PackagesHighly integrated with internal systems (ERP) through the use of interfaces and specialty softwareOrganizational fit for these systems is very high as they are highly specific to the function they supportThese are usually packaged applications that are supplied and supported by the ERP vendor or other third party system integratorsCustomization or modifications are also discouraged to minimize support cost but the applications are highly tailorable with configuration options
25Customer Relationship Management ObjectiveApplications that help organizations attract new business and attract and encourage repeat businessFunctionsThere are two primary functions in CRM systems:Sales – tools designed to assist in presales activities such as marketing and prospecting (e.g. Sales Force Automation)Service – tools that help with the post-sales aspects of the business (e.g. call center technology, analytics)SourcesThere are two primary sources of CRM systems:CRM Software Vendors – Siebel, FirePond, Onyx, E.PiphanyERP Vendors – SAP, Baan, Oracle, etc.
26Sales Support – Sales Force Automation (SFA) Sales Force Automation provides salespeople and sales managers with computerized support tools to assist in daily routinesExample: Siebel SFA displays multiple functions including: sales, quota & forecast by sales person; messages; appointments
27Supply Chain Management ObjectiveApplications that accelerate product development and reduce cost associated with procuring raw materials, components, and services from its suppliersSupply Chain – the suppliers that an organization purchases from directlySupply Network – the suppliers that an organization purchases from directly and its suppliersSourcesThere are two primary sources of SCM systems. These systems are built to tightly integrate with ERP systemsSCM Software Vendors – Agile, Ariba, I2, Manugistics, Commerce One, etc.ERP Vendors – SAP, Baan, Oracle, etc
31Supply Chain Management Benefits Supply Chain Management applications can help organizations to gain competitive advantage and provide substantial payback in several ways by:Streamlining workflow and increasing employee productivity (i.e. efficiently managing business travel, time, and expenses by collaborating with suppliers in realtime)Accelerating product development (i.e. enabled by the ability of organizations to swiftly react to market conditions)Streamlining cost and creating efficiencies across the supply network (i.e., supporting contract negotiation and measuring effectiveness of those agreements)
32SCM – Example of SAP SCM Offering SAP is the ERP market leader. They also offer SCM applications whose capabilities including the following:
33Recommendations for Enterprise System Success Secure Executive SponsorshipThe highest level support is required to obtain resources and make and support difficult reengineering decisionsGet Help from Outside ExpertsImplementation success is enabled by deep application experience and access to supporting tools and methodsThoroughly Train UsersTraining in organization, business process, and application functions is critical to success and must be reinforcedTake a Multidisciplinary Approach to ImplementationsEnterprise systems span the entire organization and as such require input and participation from all functions