CONTENT ANALYSIS CODING ISSUES: PART 2 Contextual coding Multi-level coding Coding consistency Coding meaning
EXISTING DATA SOURCES Government publications Data depositories Agency databases Public records Commercial data providers
CONTENT ANALYSIS VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Look for repeated patterns within content. Look for alternative confirmation from different sources. Compare with existing theories. Compare with studies of same content. Provide multiple supporting examples. Note disconfirming examples.
SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF PRE-EXISTING DATA USES: Contents of databases Coded data from case records Contents on paper forms Records of behavior Survey data collected for other purposes
SECONDARY ANALYSIS SAMPLING ISSUES Does existing data use same units of analysis? What is the population represented by existing records? How consistent are the retrieval procedures? What are the effects of different sources of sample mortality?
SECONDARY ANALYSIS DATA COMPARABILITY ISSUES Units of analysis in different sources Linking records for different sources Meaning of data from different sources Completeness and bias from different sources
SECONDARY ANALYSIS VALIDITY Measures may not be quite what we need. Concepts we use may not have corresponding measures. Multiple measures enhance validity. Multiple sources of data enhance validity. Quality checking enhances validity.
COMPARATIVE HISTORICAL RESEARCH USES: Governmental and organizational records Interviews Media content Participatory observation Examination of cultural objects
COMPARATIVE HISTORICAL SAMPLING ISSUES What is the unit of analysis in history? What is the population of events represented by historical records? What sampling procedure to use? How has the historical record been edited?
COMPARATIVE HISTORICAL DATA ISSUES Who created the data for what purpose? Does potential bias in data favor or oppose your conclusions? How were the data created and what omitted? What theoretical or political debates are reflected in the data?
COMPARATIVE HISTORICAL VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Historical records are filtered and reinterpreted. Historical records are incomplete. Multiple sources enhances validity and reliability. Multiple examples enhance validity and reliability. Credible explanations of disconfirming examples enhance validity and reliability