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Introduction to Qualitative Research

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Qualitative Research"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Qualitative Research
Methods, Design, & Data Analysis

2 Qualitative Research Starts with general question or problem
Characteristics: Starts with general question or problem No pre-defined hypothesis Uses a purposeful sam-ple, not a random one Uses a relatively small sample Data collected with semi-structure & unstructured instruments Presents results descriptively Utilizes researcher’s aware-ness of own orientations, biases, experiences that might affect data collection & interpretation

3 Qualitative Research: Funnel Approach
General research questions Collect data Narrower research questions Collect data Narrower research questions Conclusions

4 Qualitative Research: Inductive Approach
Specific narrow research question Collect data Broader question Collect data Broader question Conclusions

5 Qualitative Research Methods
Historical Survey Case Study Observational Ethnography

6 Qualitative Research Methods: Historical
Purpose To learn about causes, effects or trends of past events that may help to explain present events & anticipate future events Uses primary, secondary & tertiary data sources Procedure Define the problem Formulate hypotheses or questions (contin-ues throughout study) Systematically collect data Objectively evaluate data Confirm or disconfirm hypotheses

7 Qualitative Research Methods: Historical
Potential Problems Limited to data already available Excessive reliance on secondary sources Uncertainty about authenticity & accuracy of sources Lack of objectivity

8 Qualitative Research Methods: Survey
Purpose To determine the current status of a population with respect to one or more variables Can be qualitative or quantitative, depending on data sought

9 Qualitative Research Methods: Survey
Procedure Define the problem or question Formulate hypotheses (continues throughout the study) Develop the instrument (includes validation & field test) Collect data Analyze data Potential Problems Inadequate response Inclusion of unrelated items on questionnaire Poorly worded items Complex items Leading questions Assuming facts not necessarily in evidence

10 Qualitative Research Methods: Case Study
Purpose To determine the factors, & relationships among the factors, that have resulted in current behavior or status of subject Focus is on a single subject or unit (could be multiple individuals) Procedure Determine the case (individual, group, or environment) to study Determine data collection strategies & data to be collected Collect the data Analyze the data

11 Qualitative Research Methods: Case Study
Potential Problems Observer (researcher) bias Lack of generalizability Requires extensive data collection

12 Qualitative Research Methods: Observational
Purpose to determine current status of a given phenomenon; to derive specific, test-able hypotheses that explain observed behavior May be used prior to quantitative study

13 Qualitative Research Methods: Observational
Procedure Determine phenome-non to be observed Identify what specific behaviors do & do not match the target phenomenon Define the observa-tion period Record observations Analyze data Potential Problems Lack of observer reliability Untrained observers Inaccurate recording Observer bias Response set Halo effect

14 Qualitative Research Methods: Ethnography
Purpose To determine the fac-tors & relationships among the factors that result in a subject’s current status in a setting natural to the subject Relies on extensive & detailed description Procedure Refine the problem & setting of interest Decide on most appropriate & effective level of participation Develop “working” hypotheses Determine initial data collection strategies Collect data over time

15 Qualitative Research Methods: Ethnography
Potential Problems Results can be difficult to analyze Findings are nearly impossible to replicate Small sample size Generally fairly costly Time consuming

16 Qualitative Research Methods: Triangulation
Method to enhance the validity & reliability of qualitative research Enhances accuracy of interpretation Confirms that the data collected is not due to chance or circum-stances

17 Qualitative Research Design: Triangulation
For example: May interview teachers, principals & parents May interview & observe students May review student records, interview teachers, observe students Collect data from multiple sources Collect data in multiple ways from subjects Collect different kinds of data in multiple ways from multiple subjects

18 Qualitative Research Design: Triangulation
Multiple data sources Multiple kinds of data Multiple data collection strategies Subjects (data sources) Data collection strategies Kinds of data

19 Qualitative Research Design: Design Elements
Working hypothesis Working hypothesis Triangulation Foreshadowed problems Phenomenological description Structural analysis Triangulation Phenomenological description Foreshadowed problems Structural analysis

20 Qualitative Research: Data Analysis
The Data Generally collected in the form of… field notes, diaries audio & video tapes, copies of documents, narrative descriptions Analysis Some form of analysis usually takes place at the same time data is being collected Researcher seeks to identify patterns or trends

21 Qualitative Research: Data Analysis
Qualitative data may be analyzed by a 3-part strategy: reducing the data coding the data synthesizing the data

22 Homework #9 This assignment will require that you imagine a study of your own that you can apply either the Funnel approach or the Inductive approach to. Once you have completed the assignment according to the instructions on the next slide, post them to the Bulletin Board, Forum HW 9 in the prescribed format (slide #3).

23 See examples on pages 107-110 of the coursepack.
Instructions Re-state either the re-search problem you be-gan the class with, or one you develop for this assignment, in the form of a question. Brainstorm the setting, the subjects, & the data collection strategies. Using one of the two approaches, develop the scenario of your research. Question #1 is the question you begin with, and the final question should be followed by your conclusions. See examples on pages of the coursepack.

24 Posting Instructions Beginning research question
On Forum HW 9, post your homework in the following form: Beginning research question Description of setting, subjects, data collection strategies. Narrower or broader research question. Repeat data collection description. Repeat 3 & 4. Final research question.

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