Non-Experimental Research = research in which the experimenter does not have complete control over the conditions of the study Researcher gives up some.
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Presentation on theme: "Non-Experimental Research = research in which the experimenter does not have complete control over the conditions of the study Researcher gives up some."— Presentation transcript:
Non-Experimental Research = research in which the experimenter does not have complete control over the conditions of the study Researcher gives up some control in order to get the data “correlational research”
Experimental Research Non-Experimental Research Manipulation Assignment Observation
Types of Non-Experimental Research Surveys Observational Research Archival Research Case Studies
Observational Research Naturalistic Observation Participant Observer
Naturalistic Observation “unobtrusive” research “nonreactive” research Types of evidence examined: –Physical Trace –Direct Observation
Participant Observer Research Useful for secretive or otherwise isolated groups Approach to research is often hermeneutic Undisguised vs. Disguised participation Problems –Objectivity –Reactivity –Privacy and consent
Key Features of Observational Research Careful record keeping –distinguishes naturalistic observation from casual (non-systematic) observation –Coding Scheme is crucial (example: FACS) Using a variety of measures Safeguarding the privacy of participants
Data Recording Methods in Observational Research Field Notes – for direct observation –Be systematic – use checklists, record in as much detail as possible –Be selective – sampling and restricting to only behaviors of interest –Use recording devices if possible Content Analysis – for textual and photographic materials
Content Analysis Manifest vs. Latent Content –Coding manifest content is more objective, and therefore more reliable –Manifest content may be less valid in some cases Checking for reliability: –Have at least 2 raters work independently –Check for agreement, or “interrater reliability” Percent agreement Kappa –Resolve disagreements between raters if possible
Archival Research Using existing records or data Potential Problems: –You are at the mercy of whoever collected the data. (They may or may not ask what you need to know.) –The records could be biased.
Case Studies Studying a unique individual person, situation, or event Uses multiple sources of information Often focused on a practical problem or pressing issue