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Tutorial of Instructional Design

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1 Tutorial of Instructional Design
Final Exam EDCI 763 instructional Design By: Aysha Bajabaa Fall Dr. G. Whitt

2 what is instructional design (ID)
“… is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and development of a delivery system to meet those needs. it includes development of instructional materials and activities” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 5).

3 Why is instructional design (ID)
This systematic approach ensures: There is a need for training. The learning events are well-designed. Quality training materials are developed. Learning events are implemented using appropriate strategies or approaches. Learning events are evaluated to ensure that learning has taken place. It is important to enhance delivery of instruction specially teaching “ is more than putting information in front of the learners” and should “has clear goals for getting the learner focused on the right things”. Also, it “provides context and perspective” and “Compresses the learning process and saves time” which helps to “engage learners with clear and meaningful content”.

4 Effective instructional Design ?
For creating effective instructional design, designer should Pay attention to the following: There are different approaches determine how people learn: Behaviorism – Cognitivm . Having "best practices", and innovative teaching methods will make any instructional design model more effective. Many instructional designers, in an attempt to make content simple, take out information. this leaves learners wondering, The solution isn’t to take away content, but to present it in a simpler way. The art of good instructional design is When deciding what to leave out, it is essential to consider what content, when removed, will not harm the backbone of the learning.

5 Examples of instructional design model
There are various instructional design models such as : ADDIE Model ASSURE Model ARCS Model All these models provide guidelines or frameworks to organize and structure the process of creating instructional activities. ID models typically specify a method, that if followed will facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude to the recipient or acquirer of the instruction.

6 Tutorial to develop instruction
This tutorial provides a step-by-step process that helps instructional designer plans and creates an instruction or a training program with a framework in order to make sure that the instructional products are effective and efficient. This tutorial includes seven phases in order are as follows:  1 Statement of purpose. 2 Needs Analysis. 3 Task Analysis. 4 Learner Analysis 5 Learner Objectives 6 Design Instruction 7 Evaluation

7 1. Statement of Purpose Statement of purpose is “a general statement about the ultimate intention of the instruction” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 98). It indicates to what is instruction supposed to teach. What the subject matter or topic will be determined by the designer. Designer should concern about the following: The topic can be new knowledge or a kill to be taught The chosen topic should require several sub-skills. The chosen topic should be useable, useful, and appropriate for the target learners. Designer has to be knowledgeable or skillful enough in this topic to teach as the Subject Matter Expert(SME).

8 1. Statement of Purpose For example,
Topic : How to create classroom wiki using Pbwiki website (skill) The statement will be “This instruction will enable the target learners to create a Wiki for the classrooms”

9 2. need Analysis “Needs analysis is critical in helping the instructional designer determine what instruction needs to be developed or if instruction is even necessary to help bring about a desired change” p. 53. The designer gathers different information through (interview, observation, and reviews of available pieces) that helps to answer the following questions: What problem exists or what change is being required ( attitude, knowledge, skills)? Who is being asked to change? Where will the change need to occur? Does instruction is the most appropriate to make the desired change? (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 42)

10 2. Need Analysis There are different approaches of need analysis. An example is shown here.

11 3. Task Analysis Task analysis is “a critical component in the instructional design process because it provides important information about the content and/or tasks that will form the basis for the instruction being developed” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 57). Task analysis will help in determining: Learning’s goals and objectives Tasks performance What knowledge states characterize a task. Sequences of tasks Instructional activities and strategies Types of appropriate media Performance assessment tools.

12 3. Task Analysis Indentify the entry behavior, skills, or knowledge (instruction prerequisites) . Break the stated purpose into subsequent parts Then each part can be divided into sub parts. As example the statement purpose is broken into three task . Then the first task is divided into 4 subparts.

13 4. Learner analysis Learner analysis is a reliable process that helps to “understand and interpret learner characteristics in a way that helps in the design of effective instruction” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 72). It is used to find out the learner needs by determining the differences between the learners as they are currently (age, skills, background, and attitude to take course) and what the learners will achieve. There are different approaches of Learner analysis process, but completing learner analysis should help designer to answer the following questions: Who is the target Learners for the instruction? What common trails do members of the learning group posses? What are differences among learners within the group? What is the rang of ability among the learners? What is motivation for participating in the instructional event ? What will make the instruction effective and efficient for learners?

14 5. Learning objectives Learning objective is “description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 91). Learning objectives’ components includes : Action: identity the action that learner will when he/she has achieve the objective. Condition: describes condition(s) under which the learner will be acting. Criterion: specify how well the learner must perform the action.

15 5. Learning objectives Learning objectives should be : Be careful:
Specific Measurable Describe the student expectation as a result of final instruction outcome. Be careful: Each sub task should have at least one objective. Use correct verbs that can be assessed such as list , create, compare,.. Don’t Use verbs that are not measurable such as know, understand, learn..

16 6. Design instruction “Creating effective, efficient, and satisfying learning experiences for every student” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 111). Choosing instruction activities to support : different learning styles The used delivery methods . Instructional events. The sequence of activities is determined by tasks and sub-tasks order .

17 7. Evaluation Evaluation is “a process for determining the success of an individual, product, or process. It helps to determine if the intervention created and implemented is successful in meeting the specific learning goals and objectives set out for the learner” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 157). Formative evaluation: “is quality control of the development process” and “it used throughout the instructional design process to ensure that the intervention being developed is tested and revised to meet the needs of client” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 155). Summative evaluation : is “conducted at the end of instructional design process to determine how successful the process was in helping meet the major goals” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 155). “It is used to provide a summary of what occurred” (Brown, & Green, 2011, p. 155).

18 7. Evaluation In this instructional design the focus is on summative evaluation for determining how well students have mastered the objectives . Directly ask students to do what will indicate that they have mastered the learning objectives. Evaluation can be either: questions (objective, essay) Tasks(products, performance)

19 References Brown, A., & Green, T. D. (2011). The essentials of instructional design : Connecting fundamental principles with process and practice. Boston: Prentice Hall.

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