# Descriptive Statistics for Different Scale Types.

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Descriptive Statistics for Different Scale Types

Attitude An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given matter

Attitudes as Hypothetical Constructs The term hypothetical construct is used to describe a variable that is not directly observable, but is measurable by an indirect means such as verbal expression or overt behavior - attitudes are considered to be such variables.

Three Components of an Attitude Affective Cognitive Behavioral

Affective The feelings or emotions toward an object

Cognitive Knowledge and beliefs

Behavioral Predisposition to action Intentions Behavioral expectations

Measuring Attitudes Ranking Rating Sorting Choice

The Attitude Measuring Process Ranking - Rank order preference Rating - Estimates magnitude of a characteristic Sorting - Arrange or classify concepts Choice - Selection of preferred alternative

n Ranking tasks require that the respondent rank order a small number of objects in overall performance on the basis of some characteristic or stimulus.

n Rating asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic, or quality, that an object possesses. The respondent’s position on a scale(s) is where he or she would rate an object.

n Sorting might present the respondent with several concepts typed on cards and require that the respondent arrange the cards into a number of piles or otherwise classify the concepts.

n Choice between two or more alternatives is another type of attitude measurement - it is assumed that the chosen object is preferred over the other.

n Physiological measures of attitudes provide a means of measuring attitudes without verbally questioning the respondent. for example, galvanic skin responses, measure blood pressure etc.

Simple Attitude Scaling In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self-rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories;

Simplified Scaling Example THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION _______ AGREE______ DISAGREE

Concept A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes

Operational Definition Specifies what the researcher must do to measure the concept under investigation

Media Skepticism conceptual definition Media skepticism - the degree to which individuals are skeptical toward the reality presented in the mass media. Media skepticism varies across individuals, from those who are mildly skeptical and accept most of what they see and hear in the media to those who completely discount and disbelieve the facts, values, and portrayal of reality in the media.

Media Skepticism Operational Definition Please tell me how true each statement is about the media. Is it very true, not very true, or not at all true? 1.The program was not very accurate in its portrayal of the problem. 2.Most of the story was staged for entertainment purposes. 3.The presentation was slanted and unfair.

Scale Series of items arranged according to value for the purpose of quantification A continuous spectrum

Nominal Scale

Ordinal Scale

Interval Scale

Ratio Scale

Scale Properties Uniquely classifies Preserves order Equal intervals Natural zero

Nominal Scale Properties Uniquely classifies –Sammy Sosa # 21 –Barry Bonds # 25

Ordinal Scale Properties Uniquely classifies Preserves order Win, place, & show

Interval Scale Properties Uniquely classifies Preserves order Equal intervals –Consumer Price Index (Base 100) –Fahrenheit temperature

Ratio Scale Properties Uniquely classifies Preserves order Equal intervals –Natural zero –Weight and distance

Index Measures ATTRIBUTES A single characteristic or fundamental feature that pertains to an object, person, or issue COMPOSITE MEASURE A composite measure of several variables to measure a single concept; a multi-item instrument