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Presentation on theme: "LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT"— Presentation transcript:

STANDARD(S) ADDRESSED: 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the 3 branches of government. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT Describe the role of conventions in the presidential nominating process. Evaluate the importance of presidential primaries. Understand the caucus-convention process. Outline the events that take place during a national convention. Examine the characteristics that determine who is nominated as a presidential candidate.

2 A BULLDOG ALWAYS Commitment Attitude CARES Respect Encouragement Safety

3 Key Terms Delegates: party members who vote at the convention for the party’s candidate for President and Vice President presidential primary: an election in which a party’s voters choose state delegates to the national convention and/or express a preference for their party’s presidential nomination

4 Additional Key Terms winner-take-all: (PRIMARY) contest where the candidate who wins gets all the delegates chosen at the primary proportional representation: (PRIMARY) a system that gives a primary candidate a proportion of delegates equal to their percentage of the vote caucus: a closed meeting of party members who select delegates to a national convention

5 Additional Key Terms, cont.
national convention: a quadrennial meeting where major parties select their presidential ticket platform: a party’s formal statement of principles keynote address: the speech opening a national convention




9 Introduction Does the nominating system allow Americans to choose the best candidates for President? The widely used presidential primary system does force candidates to prove their political abilities before moving on in the nominating process. Whether the current system produces the most skilled candidates remains a matter of debate. 9

10 Guided Reading The Roles of the Conventions
1. From 1800 to 1824, presidential candidates were chosen by __________. congressional caucus

11 Nominating the President
The system of nominating the President is not mentioned in the Constitution and has been created by the two major parties. Each party’s national committee sets the time and place of its national convention. The committees also assign each State party a certain number of convention delegates. In 2008, the Republican convention had 2,380 delegates and the Democrats had 4,233 delegates.

12 Guided Reading The Roles of the Conventions
In 1832, that system was replaced by the ____________. 2. national convention

13 Selecting Delegates The Republican Party leaves the process of picking delegates largely up to State laws. The Democratic Party also enforces some national party rules to promote participation by minorities, women, and grass-roots organizations. NOTE TO TEACHERS: The above image shows delegates at the 2008 Democratic National Convention.

14 Guided Reading The Roles of the Conventions
Today, the Democratic and Republican parties allot each State a number of party delegates based on the State’s electoral vote and _____________. 3. its past voter support for party candidates

15 Presidential Primaries
Checkpoint: How do State laws affect the presidential primary system? The details of delegate-selection vary from State to State. In some States, the presidential primary chooses party delegates to the national convention. In others it expresses a preference among presidential contenders. In some States it does both. Many States choose early dates for their primaries. Checkpoint Answer: The rules for the primary process vary widely from state to state due to different state laws. However, many states have chosen to hold their primaries early in the election year to increase the influence their state may have on the selection of a presidential candidate. NOTE TO TEACHERS: In 2008, 16 states held their presidential primary on the same day, Super Tuesday, Feb. 5th 15

16 Guided Reading The Roles of the Conventions
The procedure for selecting delegates in a primary is governed by State laws and/or __________. 4. party rules

17 Primaries Today State primaries were once winner-take-all affairs.
The Democratic Party’s rules now ban this method, forcing many States to change their primary laws and abandon it.

18 Guided Reading Presidential Primaries
A State’s presidential primary may either be a process to ____________________ or to indicate ___________________________. 5. choose delegates to the national conventions; express preferences for presidential candidates

19 Primaries Today, cont. Most States now use the proportional representation method. More than half the primary States now hold a preference primary, with the delegates being chosen at a State party convention, usually based on the preference vote.

20 Guided Reading Presidential Primaries
Winner-take-all primaries have nearly disappeared in favor of _______________. 6. proportional representation

21 Evaluation of the Primary
Checkpoint: Why are primaries considered vital to the nomination process? They force potential nominees to test their political strength and prove their worthiness as main contenders. Primaries also make the nomination process more democratic. Primaries are less important to the party in power, which typically will either nominate the sitting President or the candidate endorsed by the President. Checkpoint Answer: Primaries make the nomination process more democratic and force potential candidates to prove their political worth, though this is less critical to the party in power, which tends to nominate the President or the candidate endorsed by the President. 21

22 Guided Reading Presidential Primaries
The few States that do not hold primaries choose delegates in ___________ and _______________. 7. caucuses; conventions

23 Primary Reform Proposals
Critics have suggested that a series of regional primaries or a single national primary would be more efficient than the long, costly State-by-State primary system. Cartoon Question Answer: The cartoon implies that the states of Iowa and New Hampshire have disproportional influence on the presidential nominations due to their early position in the process. What does this cartoon imply about the first state primary and caucus?

24 Caucuses In States that do not hold primaries, caucuses choose the delegates to the national convention. Party voters attend local caucuses where they vote for delegates to attend district conventions. The district conventions choose delegates to the State convention, which then selects the State delegates who will represent the party at the national convention.

The __________ is the statement of the party’s basic principles. 8. Platform

26 The National Conventions
Today a party’s nominee is usually decided before the convention. Conventions have three key goals: Naming the party’s presidential and vice presidential candidates Uniting the party’s factions and leaders in one place for a common purpose Adopting the party platform, stating its basic principles, policy goals, and objectives for the campaign and beyond. Conventions also draw media attention for the party and its candidate.

The ___________ is the speech that is usually given on the first day of the convention. 9. keynote address

28 National Conventions, cont.
Conventions meet for 3-4 days, organized around many speeches by party leaders, adoption of the party platform, and the keynote address celebrating the party and its candidates. The convention closes with the State delegations voting for the presidential nominee and the nominee’s acceptance speech.

29 Race for the Presidency
The race for the presidency begins long before the election. One to four years before the election, potential candidates begin to explore their chances, organize, and raise funds. From January to June of the election year, primaries and caucuses help decide the party’s frontrunner. In August and September, major parties hold conventions, adopt platforms, and nominate their presidential candidate.

30 Race for the Presidency, cont.
From September to November, the presidential candidates hold debates and give speeches. On the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, the voters cast their ballots and choose the president-elect.

31 Guided Reading Who is Nominated?
An ________ President who wants to run again is usually nominated. 10 Incumbent

32 Who is Nominated? Sitting presidents eligible for another term are usually nominated. Nominees have almost always held elected office, with governors being the most common nominees. A long public record is common but not a necessity.

33 Guided Reading Who is Nominated?
The greatest number of people who have been nominated for president have previously served as ________________. 11. State governors

34 Who is Nominated?, cont. The overwhelming majority of nominees have been white, male, Protestant, and married. Women and minorities had not been serious major party candidates until 2008, with Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama vying for the Democratic nomination and Obama winning the presidency. Republican nominee John McCain was the oldest major party presidential candidate in history.

35 Guided Reading Reviewing Key Terms Presidential Primary:
a popular vote to either elect some or all of a State's delegates to a national party convention and/or express a preference among the various contenders for a party's nomination

36 Guided Reading Reviewing Key Terms Proportional representation:
allowing a State's delegates to cast votes in proportion to his or her share of the State's primary vote

37 Review Now that you have learned about whether the nominating system allows Americans to choose the best candidates for President, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. Does the current electoral process result in the best candidates for President?


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