Presentation on theme: "Ch. 6- Federalism: National, State, and Local Powers"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch. 6- Federalism: National, State, and Local Powers Grade 7 Civics
2 6.2- The Establishment of a Federal System Pages
3 Florida Standards: S.S.7.C.3.4 Identify the relationship and division of powers between the federal government and state governments.S.S.7.C.3.9Illustrate the law making process at the local, state, and federal levels.SS.7.C.3.14Differentiate between local, state, and federal governments’ obligations and services.SS.7.C.3.11Dealing with levels, functions, and powers of courts will be partially covered (local level) in this unit, but diagramming (graphic organizer) will done in a later unit entitled, “Courts, Judges, and the Law”.
4 Let’s get started!Copy the Venn diagram below into your notebook. (You have 2 minutes)As we go through section 6.2, fill out this Venn diagram by providing a definition and at least 2 examples of powers for each part of the diagram.
5 The Constitutional Division of Powers (Venn diagram, page 103)The U.S. was the first nation-state founded with a federal system of government.The U.S. Constitution divides power between the national and state governments.These powers are then divided into three categories: expressed, concurrent, and reserved.
6 The Constitutional Division of Powers Expressed powers - are powers specifically granted to the national government by the U.S. Constitution (also known as enumerated or delegated powers).The U.S. Constitution lists only 17 of these specific powers.E.g.: coining money and making treatiesThe power to collect taxes is a concurrent power (i.e.: a power shared by the federal and state governments under the U.S. Constitution).
7 The Constitutional Division of Powers The U.S. Constitution says little about the powers reserved by states (i.e.: reserved powers - powers kept by the states under the U.S. Constitution).It does place some requirements on the states, for example:The Full Faith and Credit Clause insists that states recognize, honor, and enforce one another’s public actions.The Privileges and Immunities Clause says states cannot discriminate against residents of other states.The 10th Amendment states that any powers not specifically delegated to the national government are reserved to the states, such as:SchoolsRegulating business within the stateProtecting state resources (wildlife, phosphate, water, coastlines)
8 Did you fill out your Venn diagram? If you haven’t already… (You have 5 minutes)Fill out the diagram with at least two examples of powers for each part of the diagram.Provide a definition for each of the powers.(For the Venn diagram, go to page 103)
9 Now write down the following question… (You have 2 minutes)What are the benefits and drawbacks of a federal system?Use the following 2 slides to answer the question above.
10 The Benefits of a Federal System There are 4 benefits of a federal system:Federalism protects against tyranny of the majorityRespects the rights of the minorityFreedom of choiceFederalism promotes unity without imposing uniformityAllows for a variety of local preferences (E.g.: states pass the laws that they need)Federalism creates “laboratories” for policy experimentsAllows states to try a new idea, that if successful, may lead other states to followIf the idea fails, only one state loses out (state that conducted the political experiment)Federalism encourages political participationVoters can see the direct effect of their political participation by getting involved in the political process closer to home (E.g.: their neighborhood or county)
11 The Drawbacks of a Federal System The lack of consistency of laws and policies between states (E.g.: each state has its own different traffic laws. E.g.: credentials for teachers and other certified careers may be valid in one state but not another)The U.S. Constitution does not draw clear lines between national and state powers (i.e.: who has control over certain issues), such as:WildlifeRegulating air qualityProviding health care to those with a low socioeconomic statusWhen questions arise over who is in charge, it is often left to the Supreme Court to draw the line between the state and federal authority.
12 Did you answer the question? What are the benefits and drawbacks of a federal system?To find the answer, use pages 103 and 104.
14 Florida Standards: S.S.7.C.3.4 Identify the relationship and division of powers between the federal government and state governments.S.S.7.C.3.9Illustrate the law making process at the local, state, and federal levels.SS.7.C.3.14Differentiate between local, state, and federal governments’ obligations and services.SS.7.C.3.11Dealing with levels, functions, and powers of courts will be partially covered (local level) in this unit, but diagramming (graphic organizer) will done in a later unit entitled, “Courts, Judges, and the Law”.
15 The Evolution of Federalism There are approximately 88,000 national, state, and local units of government in the Unites States.Because of this, relations among the different levels have evolved and changed over time.
16 Let’s create a timeline! (You have 3 minutes)Create a timeline in your notebook, and place each of these terms along it:Dual federalismCooperative federalismRegulated federalismNew federalism
17 Let’s create a timeline! For each term, include:1) The approximate dates that this type of federalism existed.2) A brief explanation of how national and state powers were defined during each period.Let’s use the following presentation to fill out your timeline in your notebook.(Pages 104 – 108)
18 Dual Federalism: A Layer Cake of Divided Powers The framers agreed that the powers of the national government were to be “few and defined” and that the powers of the states “numerous and indefinite.”From 1790 to 1933, the national and state governments maintained a fairly strict division of powers.
19 Dual Federalism: A Layer Cake of Divided Powers Dual Federalism (layer cake) - The two levels of government (national and state) are part of a whole, but each has its own responsibilities.McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) - Set the supremacy of the national gov’t over the states.Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) - Set the precedent that the national government is responsible for interstate commerce.Interstate Commerce - Trade among states (controlled by national government).Intrastate Commerce - Trade within the borders of a state (controlled by state).
21 Cooperative Federalism: A Marble Cake of Mixed Powers The Great Depression of the 1930s led to a different conception of federalism.As the Depression deepened, the efforts of state governments to feed the hungry and revive the economy proved inadequate.In desperation, Americans turned to the national government for help.In 1933, President Roosevelt launched legislation called the New Deal, marking the beginning of new era of shared power among the national, state, and local governments; working together as allies.
22 Cooperative Federalism: A Marble Cake of Mixed Powers Cooperative Federalism (marble cake) - A federal system with considerable sharing between national, state, and local governments.Key ingredient of marble cake federalism was a mix of grants-in-aid programs.Grants-in-aid - Funds given by the federal government to state and local governments for specific programs (E.g.: aid to unemployed).
25 Regulated Federalism: More Money with More Strings Attached In the 1960s, President Lyndon Johnson expanded on the New Deal by creating legislation called the Great Society.The Great Society was a set of programs designed to end poverty, eliminate racial injustice, and improve the environment.Like Roosevelt, Johnson gave grants-in-aid to the state and local governments in order to fund the programs but they came with strict regulations on how the money was to be spent. This is known as regulated federalism.Regulated federalism - A federal system dominated by the national government; tightly controlled grants and unfunded mandates are key elements of regulated federalism.
26 Regulated Federalism: More Money with More Strings Attached These regulations were sometimes unfunded mandates.Unfunded mandates (1960) – a regulation or policy imposed by the federal government on state and local governments without adequate federal funds to carry out the policy.With regulated federalism, the federal government became much more involved in state and local affairs.
27 New Federalism: Returning Power to the States The rapid expansion of federal power in the 1960s alarmed the people who valued state and local control.While running for President in 1968, Richard Nixon sought to minimize the federal government and bring in New Federalism (devolution).New Federalism (devolution) – a federal system guided by a policy of returning power to the state and local governments (i.e.: The national and state governments shared fewer powers as devolution returned power to the states).New federalism occurred during the 1970s and 1980s during the Nixon and Reagan administrations.
28 New Federalism: Returning Power to the States Devolution picked up speed in 1994, when Republicans gained control of Congress for the first time in 40 years.The new Republican majority enacted the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (1995).Unfunded Mandates Reform Act - was meant to stop Congress from burdening states with responsibilities without providing adequate funds.
29 New Federalism: Returning Power to the States A year later, Congress pushed devolution further when it overhauled the nation’s welfare system.In the past, federal officials closely regulated how states gave out welfare payments to needy families but the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) returned control of welfare systems to the state governments.The federal government provided the necessary funds to the state governments in the form of block grants.Unlike the unfunded mandates, Block Grants are unregulated grants that leave states free to decide how best to spend the money they received.
30 Support for Devolution from the Supreme Court In recent years, the Supreme Court has contributed to devolution with a series of decisions limiting federal power.Gun-Free School Zone Act of 1990Appealed: Congress lacked authority to regulate guns in a school zone.U.S. v. Lopez (1994) – The Court struck down the law as an unconstitutional expansion of federal power.
32 6.4- State Governments in a Federal System Pages
33 Florida Standards: S.S.7.C.3.4 Identify the relationship and division of powers between the federal government and state governments.S.S.7.C.3.9Illustrate the law making process at the local, state, and federal levels.SS.7.C.3.14Differentiate between local, state, and federal governments’ obligations and services.SS.7.C.3.11Dealing with levels, functions, and powers of courts will be partially covered (local level) in this unit, but diagramming (graphic organizer) will done in a later unit entitled, “Courts, Judges, and the Law”.
34 Write down the following question: Let’s look it up!(You have 2 minutes)Write down the following question:What do state constitutions show about how power is distributed in our federal system?
35 State Constitutions: Long and Much Amended Most state constitutions require a quorum to be present for the legislature to vote on bills.Quorum – is a fixed number of people, often a majority, must be present for an organization to conduct businessThe purpose of a quorum is to prevent an unrepresentative minority from taking action in the name of the full organization.The U.S. Constitution requires every state constitution to support a “republican form of government,” but each state can organize its government as its citizens choose.
36 State Constitutions: Long and Much Amended State constitutions show that both the national and state governments have power to govern in our federal system. The national government has limited power and reserves a good amount of power for the states.The U.S. Constitution has approximately 7,400 words.The average state constitution has over 36,000 words.
37 Today, only 5 states still have Constitutions written before 1850. Unlike the U.S. Constitution, state constitutions tend to change frequently.Today, only 5 states still have Constitutions written before 1850.The state of Florida has amended its Constitution over 100 times.(Page 109)
38 Let’s look it up and draw! Using your textbook (pages 110 – 113), or this presentation:Record notes about the role of state legislatures, state governors, and state court systems.Create an illustration that will help you remember important information about the three branches of state government.
39 State Constitutions: Long and Much Amended State constitutions are amended in one of two ways:The state Legislature proposes an amendment, which is then passed on to the citizens (voters) for approval.About ¾ of amendments proposed by legislatures win voter approval.Or,Citizens can petition for a public vote on a proposed amendment through the initiative process.About ½ of the amendments proposed by citizen initiatives are enacted by voters.
40 The Role of State Legislatures: Laws, Budgets, and Redistricting Like the U.S. Congress, state legislatures are responsible for enacting laws, levying taxes and creating budgets.In all states, lawmakers are elected by popular vote.State lawmakers enact laws on a wide range of issues, for example:The creation of state parksEstablish graduation requirements for high schoolRegulate business activities within the stateThey also pass tax laws and draw up budgets to fund everything from state prisons to community colleges
41 The Role of State Legislatures: Laws, Budgets, and Redistricting State lawmakers are responsible for apportionment (i.e.: the distribution of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and in the state legislatures).The U.S. Constitution apportions seats in the House of Representatives to the states based on population.Congress does not have the power to say how those seats should be distributed within a state. That decision is left up to each state.
42 The Role of State Legislatures: Laws, Budgets, and Redistricting For much of our history, state legislatures varied in how they approached apportionment.Often, lawmakers tried to draw boundaries in a manner that benefited themselves or other members of their party.This is known as gerrymandering, (i.e.: drawing the legislative district with the intent of giving one party or group a significant advantage).
43 The term gerrymander was created in 1811 to describe a salamander-shaped legislative district in Massachusetts.Elbridge Gerry, the governor of Massachusetts, had created the oddly shaped district to help members of his party.This 1812 cartoon shows the salamander-like shape of Massachusetts legislative district created by governor Elbridge Gerry.(Page 111)
44 The Role of State Legislatures: Laws, Budgets, and Redistricting Frustration with the issue of gerrymandering led to a group of citizens, led by Charles Baker, to sue Tennessee’s Secretary of State inTennessee hadn’t redrawn its district lines since During that time, many rural families had migrated to cities. As a result of the legislature’s inaction, Baker’s urban district had 10 times the population as some rural districts.Baker v. Carr (1961) - Changed precedent, making redistricting (i.e.: the redrawing of voting districts to reflect population changes), a state and federal court issue based on the 14th Amendment’s right to “equal protection under the laws.”
45 The Role of State Legislatures: Laws, Budgets, and Redistricting Baker v. Carr had far reaching implications as 36 states filed lawsuits over the issue of redistricting.Reynolds v. Sims (1964) - State legislatures across the U.S. were forced to redraw their legislative districts following the principle of “one person, one vote.”Today, redistricting occurs every ten years after the national census is published.A few states have turned over this task of redrawing district lines based on census data to an independent commission.In most states, however, redistricting is still done by lawmakers.
46 The Role of State Governors: Managing the Executive Branch In all states, governors are elected by popular vote.Almost all serve four-year terms. In many states, they are limited to two terms.The Governor is the head of the Executive branch and has the power to:Help establish the legislature's agendaPrepare the state budgetVeto bills and budgets approved by the legislatureAppoint state officialsGrant pardons or reduce a criminal’s sentenceCommand the state National GuardIssue executive orders
47 The Role of State Governors: Managing the Executive Branch An executive order is an order issued to a government agency to accomplish a specific task or carry out a specific policy.(E.g.: create a task force or advisory group to study problems as diverse as foster care, recycling, juvenile justice, water management, etc.)Governors may also serve as ambassadors for their state and play a major role in promoting its economic development.
48 The Role of the State Court Systems: Settling Legal Disputes The majority of legal cases in the United States are handled at the state and local level. Only cases that have a bearing on federal law are heard in federal courts.There are two main kinds of courts in state judicial systems:Trial courts – handle most cases that affect the daily lives of citizens.Appeals courts – handle cases that are appealed, or requested to be reviewed in order to reverse the decision of a trial court. (They interpret the law, not the facts of a case)
49 The Role of the State Court Systems: Settling Legal Disputes There are two levels of trial courts:Lower level,municipal courts - deal with traffic tickets, adoptions, divorces, and minor violations of law; andsmall claims courts – settle disputes involving small amounts of money (usually less than $5,000)Higher level,trial courts - (also called: superior court, county courts, and district courts) deal with major criminal cases and lawsuits.
51 Local GovernmentsDespite their importance, local governments are not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution.It is up to each state to establish local units of government for its citizens.Local governments have the most effect on citizens’ everyday life.
52 Let’s create a table!Complete this table in your notebook by briefly describing the organization and purpose of each local government system.You may use the information found in this presentation to fill out your table or pages 114 to 117 in your textbook.
53 Counties, Parishes, and Boroughs The original purpose of counties was to provide government services to rural residents. These services may include:Law enforcementCourtsRoad construction and maintenancePublic assistance to poorRecording legal documentsMany counties have expanded to provide health protection, hospitals, libraries, parks, fire protection, and agricultural aid.
54 Counties, Parishes, and Boroughs County governments were traditionally headquartered in the county seat, which is often the most centrally located town in the county.County Seat – the town or city in which a county government is based. (E.g.: County headquarters in Polk County = BARTOW)Most county governments are headed by an elected board of commissioners or board of supervisors. Other elected officials typically include the county sheriff, treasurer, tax assessor, and judgesAppointed officials may include the fire marshal and the county coroner.
55 Towns and CitiesThe oldest form of city government is a mayor council system.Mayor-council system - The voters elect both city council members and a mayor.The mayor is the chief executive of the city.The city council is the lawmaking body of the city.The purpose is to govern a city. The mayor’s powers vary from city to city.Some cities have strong mayors, others have weak mayors.This worked well in the 1800s.
57 Towns and CitiesDue to natural disasters that occurred along the Gulf Coast in the early 1900s, the mayor- council system of government was abandoned and replaced with a board of commissioners (commission system).Commission System – a form of city government led by a group of professional commissioners chosen (by the voters) for their skills and expertise. Commissioners enact ordinances.This system worked well to repair cities like Galveston, TX, which were ruined due to natural disasters that occurred in the early 1900s.The purpose is to govern a city. Commissioners also serve as department heads to carry out duties.One criticism of the system was that it was undemocratic.Elections were held where commissioners were still elected based on their skills and expertise.
59 Towns and CitiesIn the 1950s and 60s, many cities switched to a third form of local government known as the council-manager system.council-manager system - Citizens elect a city council (often led by a weak mayor), but the day-to-day job of running the city government is handled by a hired city manager.The purpose is to govern a city. This system combines the democratic rule of a city council with the professional management expertise.Today, council-manager system is the most popular form of local government in the United States
61 Special-Purpose District Some functions of government are so specialized that citizens create separate units of government to deal with them.Special-Purpose Districts - Government entities that may overlap geographic boundaries of cities and counties, but they operate independently from those other local units of government.These districts may have their own elected leaders and taxing authority.They usually carry out one specialized function, such as providing fire protection, running a hospital, or providing education.
63 The Challenges Facing Local Governments Local governments are more closely watched by citizens because they affect their everyday livesMost local governments depend on citizens who are willing to volunteer their time.Most government positions pay little to nothing.Finding volunteers can be difficult.