Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Local Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9 Local Government American Civics4/14/2017Chapter 9 Local GovernmentSection 1: Units of Local GovernmentSection 2: Town, Township, and Village GovernmentsSection 3: City GovernmentSection 4: How Governments Work TogetherChapter 9
2 Section 1: Units of Local Government The Main IdeaLocal governments have grown as the country has grown. As Americans settled in rural communities, towns, cities, and suburbs, they set up local governments.Reading FocusHow are local governments established, and why are they needed?How is county government organized, and what are the main purposes of each level of county government?How do local and state governments work together?
3 Local governments Section 1: Units of Local Government Are established by and given powers from the state governments.Define their powers, responsibilities, and organization by charter from the state.Provide services for citizens.Maintain roads, running water, sewage systems, sidewalks, street cleaning, and trash collection.Supervise privately owned electric and transportation systems.
4 The county system of government in the United States: Section 1: Units of Local GovernmentThe county system of government in the United States:Borrowed from England, began in the southern agricultural statesScattered population gathered at the county seat to discuss issues.
5 Organization and purpose of county government: Section 1: Units of Local GovernmentOrganization and purpose of county government:County board is elected by voters and forms the legislative body.The county board supervises elections; enforces state laws; collects taxes; and provides health and welfare services, libraries, roads, and schools.County officials include sheriff and deputies, county clerk, treasurer, auditor, and district attorney.Some counties have elected a county manager and a county executive.
6 How Local Governments Are Established Why Local Governments Are Needed SECTION 1Question: How are local governments established, and why are they needed?How Local Governments Are EstablishedWhy Local Governments Are NeededState governments establish local governments and grant them powers.They provide and manage services to the community.
7 Section 2: Town, Township, and Village Governments The Main IdeaAlthough counties are the largest unit of local government, they share the job of governing with other units of local government.Reading FocusWhere did town government begin, and what is the purpose of the town meeting?Why did townships and special districts develop, and how does each function?Why are villages and boroughs created, and how do they operate?
8 Town Governments Section 2: Town, Township, and Village Governments Town governments began in the New England colonies.Today, selectmen and selectwomen are elected to manage the town’s affairs.Officials discuss the town business and a vote is taken on each item.Population growth has inhibited direct democracy.Higher populations require more local services.Town managers and representative town meetings have developed.
9 Section 2: Town, Township, and Village Governments TownshipsFirst type: developed in the Middle Atlantic states; maintained roads and schools and assisted the poorSecond type: divisions of land in the Midwestern states that were developed by Congress in 1785 as part of a surveying system
10 Special Districts Developed to serve special needs of an area Section 2: Town, Township, and Village GovernmentsSpecial DistrictsDeveloped to serve special needs of an areaThe most numerous form of local governmentOperated by a commission
11 Section 2: Town, Township, and Village Governments Villages and BoroughsCreated when populations grow and need to organizeSelf-governing municipalitiesCollect taxes and provide local servicesGoverned by a council with an executive (mayor)
12 Where Town Government Began SECTION 2Question: Where did town government begin, and how has it changed?Where Town Government BeganHow It Has ChangedCitizens used to be able to vote on issues directly, now representatives vote on issues.New England colonies
13 Section 3: City Government The Main IdeaA city is usually larger than a town or village. In many cities a large population is crowded into a relatively small area, which creates many challenges for city government.Reading FocusHow are city governments organized under the home-rule system?What are the different forms of city government?
14 Cities Section 3: City Government Are larger than other local governments.Often have large populations crowded into a small area.Must deal with education, health, safety, transportation, sanitation, water supply, and fire and police protection.
15 City Governments Section 3: City Government Established by and receive charters from state legislaturesSome cities have been granted home rule and can write their own charters.Home rule cities manage their own affairs.Some states limit the independence of their cities’ governments.
16 Different types of city governments and their functions: Section 3: City GovernmentDifferent types of city governments and their functions:Mayor-Council Government—Mayor prepares the budget, proposes laws, and appoints officials; city council passes laws and approves the mayor’s appointments; cities have weak-mayor plans and strong-mayor plans.
17 Different types of city governments and their functions: (continued) Section 3: City GovernmentDifferent types of city governments and their functions: (continued)Commission Government—Board of commissioners passes laws and carries out the functions of government.Council-Manager Government—City council passes laws and appoints the city manager, who proposes laws and appoints department heads.
18 charter granted by state government SECTION 3Question: How are city governments established?How City Governments Are Establishedthe state gives the city permission to write its own charter under home rulecharter granted by state government
19 Section 4: How Governments Work Together The Main IdeaYou live under three levels of government—local, state, and federal. Without cooperation among these levels, everyday life would not run smoothly.Reading FocusHow do the different levels of government work together?How do governments cooperate to meet people’s needs?In what ways are different levels of government in competition?
20 Division of powers among levels of government: Section 4: How Governments Work TogetherDivision of powers among levels of government:Local, state, and federal governments have clearly defined powers.Each level of government has the power needed to do its job.All levels of government obey the U.S. Constitution.The federal system keeps the powers of each level clearly defined.
21 The federal government is involved in building roads. Section 4: How Governments Work TogetherThe federal government is involved in building roads.Roads were originally local projects.As the country grew, Congress voted to federally fund roads connecting the east to the west.Late 1800s—state funds first used to manage local roadsInterstate highway system is a joint effort of state and federal governments.Good roads contribute to the safety and well-being of all citizens.
22 Section 4: How Governments Work Together Government functions requiring the cooperation of different levels of government:Public education—funds and services from the state; schools controlled by local boards; special funds from the federal governmentFederal Bureau of Investigation and the local and state police—work together and share state crime laboratoriesStores and businesses—state licensing boards ensure quality local services; grants-in-aid and block grants given to state and local governments from federal government
23 SECTION 4Question: Why did the federal government become involved in the building of roads?The United States expanded.The federal government became involved in the planning, building, and maintenance of the highway system to facilitate the movement of people and goods.Highways were needed to connect the East and the West.The automobile necessitated a complex system of national highways.
24 Chapter 9 Wrap-Up 1. How are local governments established? 2. What are the origins of the county system of government in the United States?3. Explain where town government began and how it has changed over time.4. When are villages and boroughs created, and how do they operate?5. Define the term city and explain the services city governments provide for the residents.6. How do city governments get their power and structure?7. In which areas do the three levels of government—local, state, and federal—cooperate?8. What difficulties could occur if different levels of government did not cooperate?