3 Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence (Book Def.) – The study of computer systems that model and apply the intelligence of the human mindUsed to develop software and machines that emulate human qualities such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing, and hearingAreas includeExpert systemsNatural language processingNeural networksIntelligent agentsVirtual reality and simulation devicesPattern recognitionFuzzy logicRobotics
4 Knowledge Representation Semantic network: A knowledge representation technique that represents the relations between objects. It is a directed or undirected graph consisting of vertices, which represent concepts, and edges.GenderPersonStudentJohnMaleIDSimsDormBrownEye ColorEye colorInstanceofLives inHas aIs a
5 Search TreesSearch tree: A structure that represent alternatives in various situations such as game playingDepth-First SearchBreadth-First Search
6 Breadth First vs. Depth First Search Depth First Breadth First
7 Breadth First vs. Depth First Search Which type of search would return the result the fastest for: M? K? D? G?
8 Expert Systems Three components of an expert system Knowledge base An expert system’s database of knowledge about a particular subjectInference engineThe software that controls the search of the expert system’s knowledge base and produces conclusionsUser interfaceThe display screen the user used to interact with the expert system
9 Artificial Intelligence Natural language processingAllows users to interact with a system using normal language.Voice recognition – recognizing human wordsLanguage comprehension – interpreting human communicationVoice synthesis – recreating human speechChallenges of natural language processing?Intelligent agentsA form of software with built-in intelligence that monitors work patterns, asks questions, and performs work tasks on your behalfPattern recognitionInvolves software that identify recurring patterns and maps the pattern against patterns stored in a database
10 Artificial Intelligence Fuzzy logicA method of dealing with imprecise data and uncertainty, with problems that have many answers rather than oneVirtual realityA computer-generated artificial reality that projects a person into a sensation of 3-D spaceOften used with simulators to represent the behavior of physical or abstract systems
11 Background of Robotics Idea of artificial people dates all the way back to Greek MythologyOne of the first recorded designs was by Da VinciWhat Classifies a Robot? Experts Say:Artificially createdReacting to external environmentCan manipulate environmentIs programmableCan Move
12 What Are Robots Used For? Right now Robots are used forEntertainmentCar ProductionJobs Too Dangerous for HumansVacuum Cleaner (Like from the commercial)Companionship to Humans (Aibo)Many other things
13 What Could Robots Be Used For? Future Plans for Robotics include:Assistance to the Elderly or DisabledMedical FieldSpacePersonal Service Robots
14 Science Fiction and Robotics Isaac AsimovThree Laws of Robotics:A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harmA robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First LawA robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
15 Can Robots act Ethically? Serious Questions Must be Raised
16 Decisions, DecisionsComputers have algorithms and strict rules to guide actionHuman DecisionsNot based on rules aloneAlso judgment and conscienceIf a robot could think ethically, whose ethics would it follow?
17 RoboticsThe development and study of machines that can perform work that is normally done by peopleSubsumption architectureCommonly found in manufacturing plants and also in situations where people would be in dangerNuclear plantsAssembly lines, especially paint linesChecking for land minesFighting oil-well fires
18 Robotics Two main Categories of Robots Fixed – stay put, generally have one specific task things around it move (assembly line)Mobile – move about and interact with the environment around it.Mobile Robotics - the study of robots that move relative to their environmentSense-Plan-Act (SPA) paradigm – steps of a mobile robot completing some action.(SENSING -> WORLD MODELING -> PLANNING -> CONTROL -> EXECUTION)Sensing – sensor data input some knowledge from the outside worldWorld Modeling – interprets and models the input from sensingPlanning - Interpreted model is used generate a plan of actionControl – Robot’s control system (the hardware) is used to carry out the plan.Execution – Plan carried out through executionMain challenge of SPA Paradigm – new sensory data comes in so fast and must be processed so fast that it is extremely difficult to use.
19 Weak & Strong AI Weak vs. Strong A.I. Weak A.I. claims computers can be programmed to simulate human cognitionStrong A.I. claims that computers can think on a level that is equal to or better than humans, and can also achieve consciousnessCyc approach to strong A.I.A database in Austin, TX that holds 1.4 million basic truthsPlan is that Cyc will automatically make human-like assumptionsHope is that Cyc will learn on its ownCog approach to strong A.I.MIT project that is a humanoid robotTries to identify and search for patterns instead of following rules and facts
20 Testing Intelligence Test for Human Intelligence In 1950, Allen Turing predicted computers would be able to mimic human thinkingThe Turing test determines whether the machine is humanJudge is in another location and doesn’t see the computerIf the computer can fool the judge, it is said to be intelligentWeak equivalence: The equality of two systems based on the resultsStrong equivalence: The equality of two systems based on their results and the process by which the results were reached
21 Turing TestInterrogator (C) must determine which respondent is a computer and which is human.