Presentation on theme: "Information and Software Technology Option: Artificial intelligence, simulation and modelling."— Presentation transcript:
Information and Software Technology Option: Artificial intelligence, simulation and modelling
Information and Software Technology Artificial intelligence (AI) What is intelligence? –Ability to reason –Ability to acquire and use knowledge –Ability to perceive ideas –Ability to manipulate objects What is artificial intelligence? –Ability of computers to imitate human behaviour and thought processes.
Information and Software Technology Historical perspective of artificial intelligence Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 – 322BC) logical reasoning form the basis of many AI systems. Alan Turing (1912 – 1954) created the Turing machine that could perform logical operations. The Turing test is where a human has to determine if the response was generated by a computer or a human. Watch this video and discuss Watch this video and discuss Page 169 Exercise 8.1 qs 1 - 4
Information and Software Technology Areas of artificial intelligence Major areas of AI P171 –Intelligent Systems –Expert systems and Knowledge Bases –Neural networks –Games –Natural language –robotics robotics Artificial intelligent system is a computer system that receives data through an input device such as a mouse, keyboard or microphone and produces an intelligent response.
Information and Software Technology Expert systems Expert systems are computer programs that make the collective knowledge of various experts in a field available to the user. They are built on knowledge bases. Examples of expert system include –Medical expert system –Voice recognition system –Travel navigation expert system –Financial systems
Information and Software Technology Expert System Example http://www.lpa.co.uk/pws_dem7.htm Investigate a website that uses AI. Create a report and present to class using PowerPoint. Create a report and present to class using PowerPoint. Use examples and links.
Information and Software Technology Neural networks A computer system that works like the human brain and is capable of learning. Watch video and discuss Watch video and discuss Research AI and find product that demonstrates the concepts of AI. Create a Photostory Digital Narrative about it. Be sure to include photographs,text and sounds.
Information and Software Technology Knowledge bases – a centralised repository for information. Computers can be programmed to use rules based on set conditions. IF-THEN rule. –IF this knowledge exists (premise) THEN do this (conclusion). Agents – A piece of software designed to search through databases for relevant data. Used in neural networks to search vast amounts of data. Demons – A program that springs to life when it is relevant. Allow computers to be self-modifying. Page 175 Exercise 8.2 qs 1-4
Information and Software Technology Modelling and simulations Model – a simpler version of a real world object or idea. Modelling – process of creating a model. Computer model – an electronic representation of an object or idea. Simulation – the process of imitating real-life occurrences in order to test a model.
Information and Software Technology Purposes of Modelling and simulations Spreadsheets Financial Planners Financial Planners Car Manufacturers Car Manufacturers Training Simulators Training Simulators Drilling Simulators Drilling Simulators Space Shuttle Missions Space Shuttle Missions Scientific Simulations Scientific Simulations Astronomers
Information and Software Technology Advantages and limitations Safer, cheaper and quicker to use a model. More efficient and minor changes to the models can be easily altered. Might be the only method for training (astronauts). The simulation is only as good as the model that was created. Models are often too simplistic and lead to inaccurate results. Page 178 Exercise 8.3 qs 1-4
Information and Software Technology Requirements of models and simulations Hardware –Can take a lot of time to build the required hardware. –The hardware needs fast processing –Parallel processing (linking of two or more processing units within the one computer) is often used. –Large amounts of storage space is required. Software –Required to carry out complex computations. –Specifically designed to suit the model.
Information and Software TechnologySimulators A hardware device that imitates certain environments. Used for training and experiments to simulate movement. Flight simulators –Used to train pilots and provide realistic feelings of flying –Has working replica of cockpit, computers, projectors and screens. Car simulators –Good for learner drivers. Virtual reality games –Users usually wear a head-mounted display that presents computer images to each eye and sounds through earphones. Homework Exercise 8.4 qs 1 - 4
Information and Software Technology Spreadsheets If –Then –Else