Plant Tissues and Organs
Modular construction of a shoot
Basic Plant Morphology
TISSUES- a group of cells functioning together in some specialized activity MERISTEMS- a mass of self-perpetuating cells, which are not yet committed to developing into a specialized cell type Terminal meristems- ends of stems, branches and roots Axillary meristems- base of leaves, branches Lateral meristems are parallel to sides of plant parts and increase girth.
Meristem types Primary Secondary Apical Meristems Vascular cambium
Flowering plants have 3 basic tissue types
Dermal Cover surface of plant Protection Ground Vascular Conducting tissue
Dermal Epidermis epidermal cells Periderm cork cells
Vascular Tissue Xylem Phloem Mostly to conduct water and nutrients
E.g., roots to shoots Phloem Mostly to conduct sugars, amino acids, etc. E.g., leaves to roots or flowers
Vegetative Organs Roots Stems Leaves
Function of roots Anchor the plant Absorb water and minerals from soil
Longitudinal section of roots
Root cap Zone of cell division Zone of cell elongation Zone of maturation
Cross section of root Vascular bundle (Stele) = contains xylem and phloem Cortex Epidermis Root hairs Absorb water and minerals
Function of Stems support leaves to maximize light absorption
part of conduit for transport of water, minerals, and organic solutes storage
Woody dicots Discrete vascular bundles replaced by continuous rings of xylem Each ring is xylem produced during one growing season Vascular cambium
Stems: Secondary growth
Vascular tissue, (xylem) makes up the bulk of the stem Form tree rings
Function of leaves Main photosynthetic structure
Leaf parts Blade Petiole Pair of stipules
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