2 Polio is a highly infectious viral disease “Aminu Ahmed holds his son Umar, 2, who also suffers from polio April 8, 2005 in Kano, Nigeria. Polio, a disease that health workers once had hoped to eradicate worldwide by 2005, is on the march again in Nigeria.”
3 One In 200 infections results in paralysis, usually of the legs. 95% of people infected don’t experience symptoms
4 In the 1930s a polio epidemic emerged in the US In the 1930s a polio epidemic emerged in the US. Although Polio isn’t the most deadly infectious disease it terrified everyoneCholera, typhus, yellow fever, diptheria, and TB were all more deadly and commonPolio could cripple an otherwise healthy child overnightNot everyone who gets infected gets sick
5 So why an epidemic?Around the 1900s nations cleaned up their water supplies
6 So why an epidemic?Around the 1900s nations cleaned up their water suppliesMothers used to pass antibodies to their children.
7 So why an epidemic?Around the 1900s nations cleaned up their water suppliesMothers used to pass antibodies to their children.By the 1930s mothers no longer had those antibodies to pass to their children since they had never been exposed to the virus before
8 So why an epidemic?Around the 1900s nations cleaned up their water suppliesMothers used to pass antibodies to their children.By the 1930s mothers no longer had those antibodies to pass to their children since they had never been exposed to the virus beforeTHIS LEFT CHILDREN VULNERABLE
9 It was not just a disease of the poor! However children 5 and under were most vulnerable and most likely to get the diseaseThe crippling effects of polio are devastating and infection could strike anyone.
10 President Franklin Delano Roosevelt Perfect example of how the disease can affect even the most affluent. He became an advocator for helping treat and prevent polio as well as an advocator for aid for polio survivors
11 This got peoples attention! “Iron lungs” were used to help patients breathe if the paralysis spread to their diaphragm.
12 Clearly a vaccination is in order. BUT first what causes polio?
13 The Poliovirus (PV) Causes Polio This was discovered in 1909 by Landsteiner and Popper. It is a RNA virus
14 Poliovirus invading a cell The virus attaches to specific cell-surface receptors (Vpr)
15 Poliovirus invading a cell The virus attaches to specific cell-surface receptors (Vpr)It then enters the cell through endocytosis and releases its genetic material into the cytoplasm
16 POLIOVIRUSPV enters the body through the nose or mouth then lives and multiplies in the human gut.
17 POLIOVIRUSDuring this stage the patient experiences flu like symptoms such as:HeadachevomitingfeverNeck stiffnessPain in limbs
18 Next, the virus moves to the blood stream where the immune system makes antibodies to it and hopefully fights it off.If the Immune system fails…
19 PV travels to the central nervous system and attacks motor neurons which can result in flaccid paralysis, muscle weakening or death.BUT, thankfully the human immune system is so good that it only causes paralysis in 1 in 200 cases!!However it can still spread…
20 The poliovirus spreads through infected feces or phlegm Open sewerThe Virus Can survive for up to two months outside the body!!!Therefore It Spreads rapidly in areas of poor sanitation, living conditions and water supply
21 To stop the spread of polio scientists developed vaccines In 1955 Dr. Jonas Salk produced the first polio vaccine:A Killed virus vaccine70-90% effective against all three strains of poliovirus
22 In 1957 Albert Sabin developed a live, attenuated vaccine Delivered orallyprovided longer immunity
23 Mandatory Vaccinations eliminated wild poliovirus infections from the U.S. by 1979!!! So What Next??
24 1988 a global eradication plan was put into action Lead by WHO, UNICEF, Rotary international; and the US centers for disease controlThe number of cases dropped by over 99% in the 20 years! (WHO)
25 And It Only takes a few drops! 20 million volunteers have vaccinated 2 billion children in 200 countries!And It Only takes a few drops!
26 But there is still much work to be done! The eradication campaign has encountered many set backsEspecially in the countries that remain endemic
27 Polio remains endemic in only four nations: PakistanAfghanistanIndiaNigeriaThe Polio eradication plan has been very successful and has saved millions of lives and it will continue until every child is vaccinated and the wild poliovirus no longer has a host!