Presentation on theme: "Unit 14 The Federal Reserve The Top Five Concepts"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 14 The Federal Reserve The Top Five Concepts MacroeconomicsUnit 14The Federal ReserveThe Top Five Concepts
2 IntroductionThis unit discusses the role of the Federal Reserve. Did you know that the Federal Reserve is responsible for determining the rates that most of the banks use to establish their rates for savings accounts, time deposits and loans?The impact of changes in Federal Reserve policy on banks, businesses and consumers is also discussed.Finally, a simple calculation to determine the yield on a bond is discussed.
3 Concept 1: Federal Reserve Structure The Federal Reserve System consists of 12 Federal Reserve Banks located throughout the United States.Regional Federal Reserve Banks provide services to private banks in their area.Four main services are provided: check clearing, holding bank reserves, providing currency and coins, and providing loans to private banks.
4 Concept 1: Federal Reserve Structure The Federal Reserve System is governed by its Board of Governors.The board of governors consists of 7 members appointed by the U.S. president to 14-year terms.The U.S. president selects one governor to be the chair.The chair serves a four-year term and can be reappointed. The current chair of the Federal Reserve is Ben Bernanke who recently replaced Alan Greenspan as chair.
5 Concept 1: Federal Reserve Structure The Federal Reserve also contains a group called the Federal Open Market Committee.This group has 12 members consisting of the Federal Reserve Bank governors (7) plus 5 of the 12 regional Federal Reserve Bank presidents.The committee is responsible for directing Federal Reserve transactions in the money market (buying and selling securities). They also determine the amount of reserves that private banks are required to maintain.
6 Monetary ToolsThe Federal Reserve can change the supply of money using one or more of the following policy instruments:Changing bank reserve requirements (reserve ratio).Changing bank discount and federal funds rates.Through open market operations – the buying and selling of government securities.
7 Concept 2: Reserve Requirements By changing the reserve ratio, the Federal Reserve can increase or decrease the supply of money available to banks for lending activity.If the banking system has total deposits of $100 billion, and the reserve ratio is .20, then the banks have required reserves of ($100 billion X .20) $20 billion.Excess reserves are calculated based upon the amount of additional deposits banks have to lend after the reserve requirement is met.
8 Concept 2: Reserve Requirements Excess reserves = Total reserves – required reserves.Any dollar amount of reserves being held by a bank that is over the required reserve amount is excess reserves.In our example, $100 billion of total reserves (deposits) exists in the banking system. The required reserve ratio is The required reserve equals .20 X $100 billion = $20 billion.Excess reserves = $100 billion - $20 billion = $80 billion.
9 Concept 2: Reserve Requirements Federal Reserve policy is concerned with what happens to bank excess reserves.If the $80 billion was used for loans, we can calculate the total economic effect using the money multiplier.Money multiplier = 1/required reserve ratio.1/.20 = 55 X $80 billion = $400 billion increase in the money supply.
10 Concept 2: Reserve Requirements Federal Reserve policy can increase or decrease the reserve requirement.By changing the reserve requirement, the Federal Reserve can increase or decrease the supply of money.If the reserve ratio is increased, banks have less money to lend. The supply of money is reduced.If the reserve ratio is decreased, banks have more money to lend. The supply of money is increased.
11 Impact of an Increased Reserve Requirement Notice that when the reserve ratio increases, excess reserves decline.A table showing the impact of two different required reserve ratios on a bank with $100 billion in deposits.
12 Concept 2: Reserve Requirement Changes in the reserve requirement cause a change in the following:Excess reserves.The money multiplier.The lending capacity of the banking system.Banks will try to keep their excess reserves to a minimum in order to improve their profitability. If significant excess reserves and the bank is unable to loan them, most banks will purchase government securities to provide some additional income.
13 Concept 3: The Discount Rate At times banks may need to borrow money from the Federal Reserve in order to meet minimum reserve requirements.If a bank borrows money from the Federal Reserve to cover reserve requirements, it borrows at the discount rate.The discount rate is the rate of interest the Federal Reserve charges for lending reserves to private banks.The discount rate is determined by current Federal Reserve policy.
14 Concept 3: The Discount Rate Banks may also borrow money from other banks to meet reserve requirements. When loans of this type occur, the funds are borrowed at the federal funds rate of interest. The federal funds rate is the interest rate for interbank reserve loans.The federal funds rate is controlled by the Federal Reserve through its Open Market Committee. Additional information about the federal funds rate and the discount rate can be obtained atClick on the links for the discount rate and open market operations.
15 Concept 3: The Discount Rate If the Federal Reserve wishes to increase the supply of money, it can lower the discount and federal funds rates. This causes the rates that banks charge for loans to fall and increases lending activity.If the Federal Reserve wishes to decrease the supply of money, it can raise the discount and federal funds rates. This causes the cost of banks loans to rise which reduces the demand for loans.Rate changes also make it more or less expensive for banks to borrow money to cover reserve requirements.
16 Concept 4: Open Market Operations The third tool of monetary policy implemented by the Federal Reserve is called Open Market Operations.Open Market Operations are one of the primary tools used to directly alter the reserves of the banking system.Open Market Operations is the process where the Federal Reserve makes federal government bonds more or less attractive as an investment to the private sector, including banks.
17 Concept 4: Open Market Operations The Federal Reserve is one of the U.S. government’s largest bond holders. Bonds can be bought and sold in the open market.Prices of bonds are determined by their interest rates and the price paid for the bond.If the Federal Reserve lowers its price on government bonds it would like to sell, this will increase the demand for bonds and reduce bank deposits. Why? Individuals and businesses are attracted to federal government securities when they are sold at a discount price.
18 Concept 4: Open Market Operations If the Federal Reserve buys government bonds at higher prices, the demand for them by other market participants (individuals, businesses) is reduced and more funds remain in the banking system. This activity by the Federal Reserve lowers bond yields and market interest rates while increasing the supply of money.Therefore, if the Federal Reserve sells an increasing number of bonds because of a price reduction, it is reducing the supply of money. Why? Because individuals and businesses will take their bank deposits and buy the securities. This reduces the amount of bank deposits available for deposit creation.
19 Concept 4: Open Market Operations To summarize:If the Federal Reserve wishes to increase the supply of money, it buys more federal government securities on the open market. Government securities investors are willing to sell because the Federal Reserve buys the securities at attractive premium prices.If the Federal Reserve wishes to decrease the supply of money, it sells more federal government securities on the open market. Government securities investors are willing to buy more securities because the Federal Reserve sells the securities at attractive discount prices.
20 Concept 4: Open Market Operations If the money supply is increased by the actions of the Federal Reserve, the desired effect is to shift the aggregate demand curve to the right.If the money supply is decreased by the actions of the Federal Reserve, the desired effect is to shift the aggregate demand curve to the left.
21 Concept 4: Open Market Operations Bond prices are determined by the interest rate and cost of the bond.Often the yield is an important calculation used to determine the value of a bond.The yield is the annual rate of return on a bond calculated by taking the annual interest payment and dividing it by the bond’s price.
22 Concept 5: Bond YieldYield = annual interest payment / price paid for the bondFor example:A $1000 face value bond, with a 4% interest rate. Annual interest payment = .04 X 1000 = $40.If the bond was purchased for $900, what is its yield?Yield = 40/900 = 4.4%Notice that we do not use the face value of the bond to calculate the yield – we use the cost of the bond.
23 Bond YieldBonds can also be bought and sold for more than their face value.For example, a $1000 bond with a 6% interest rate.Annual interest payment = .06 X 1000 = $60If this bond was bought for $1100, what is its yield?Yield = 60/1100 = 5.5%Once again we use the cost or purchase price of the bond to calculate its yield.
24 Bond YieldWhy would someone buy a bond for more than its issue price or face value?Usually this occurs when the interest rate being paid on the bond is higher than the current market rates for similar bonds.When this occurs the bonds with higher interest rates become more costly to purchase (demand for these bonds is higher) thereby reducing the yield on the bonds to current market rates.
25 Federal Reserve Policy Choices Summary To increase the supply of money the Federal Reserve can:Lower reserve requirement.Lower discount and federal funds rates.Buy more government bonds.To decrease the supply of money the Federal Reserve can:Increase reserve requirement.Increase discount and federal funds rates.Sell more government bonds.
26 Monetary Control Act of 1980 Prior to 1980, the Federal Reserve did not have authority or control over all banks.Upon passage of the Monetary Control Act of 1980, the Federal Reserve obtained control over all banks, savings and loans, savings banks, and most credit unions. All institutions are required to comply with the new Federal Reserve reserve requirements.The act also permitted banks to begin diversifying into other financial services to compete with other non-bank entities. It also gave all banks access to the Federal Reserve’s discount window.
27 Summary Federal Reserve System. Federal Open Market Committee. Reserve requirement.Discount and federal funds rate.Open market operations.Monetary policy options.Monetary Control Act of 1980.More information about the Federal Reserve and its operations is available at: