Presentation on theme: "Money Supply. Learning Objectives Review the money supply expansion process. Learn how to derive the M1 model. Understand how the interaction of the money."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives Review the money supply expansion process. Learn how to derive the M1 model. Understand how the interaction of the money multiplier and base determine M1. Understand the role of the Federal Reserve, the commercial banking system, and the non-bank public in the money creation process.
The Money Supply M1:Currency + travelers checks + checkable deposits M2:M1 + small time deposits + overnight repurchase agreements + overnight Eurodollars + money market mutual fund balances M3:M2 + large denomination time deposits + term repurchase agreements + term Eurodollars + institutions only money market fund balances
The Creators of Money The three major players whose decisions and actions determine the rate of growth in the money supply are: –The Federal Reserve (Fed) Sets reserve requirements Operates the discount window Engages in open market operations –The Commercial Banking System Accepts deposits and makes loans Sets excess reserves –The Non-Bank Public Holds either deposits or cash
Money Creation Banks create money in their normal, day-to- day profit seeking activities Banks do not try to create money Money creation occurs because we have a fractional reserve commercial banking system. –Banks must hold a fraction of their deposits idle as reserves. They may lend the remainder. As they make loans, new deposits are created, causing the money supply to expand.
Bank Reserves Total Reserves = Required reserves plus excess reserves –Required reserves = Deposits times reserve requirement –Excess reserves = Total reserves minus required reserves
The M1 Model: Derivation Definitions: –M1 = D + C –Base = R + C –Total Deposits = D Assumptions: –r = R/D = required reserve ratio for deposits –e = E/D = the excess reserve ratio –c = C/D = the ratio of currency to deposits
The M1 Model: Derivation Model: B = R + C R = rD + E D = D C = cD E = eD B = rD + eD + cD B = D(r + e + c) 1 ( r + e + c) B D =
The M1 Model: Derivation Model: M1 = D + C M1 = D + cD M1 = D(1 + c) Factor out D M1 = 1 + c r + e + c B M1 = Multiplier x Base
Money Multiplier Terms Changes in r –If r increases, the multiplier decreases –If r decreases, the multiplier increases The money multiplier and M1 are negatively related.
Money Multiplier Terms Changes in c –If c increases, reserves drain from the banking system. Fewer reserves mean less expansion of deposits. –If c decreases, reserves in the banking system increase. More reserves mean more expansion of deposits. The money multiplier and M1 are negatively related.
Money Multiplier Terms Changes in e –An increase in e means banks are holding more excess reserves and lending less. –A decrease in e means banks are holding fewer excess reserves and lending more. The money multiplier and M1 are negatively related.
The Money Supply: Summary The money supply equals the monetary base times the money multiplier –The monetary base (base) is defined as: Base = Reserves + Currency –Base can be controlled by the Federal Reserve –The multiplier reflects the ability of the banking system to expand deposits The multiplier = 1 + c/(r + e + c) –The value of the multiplier is determined by the Fed, banks, and the members of the non-bank public.
Open Market Operations Fed Bank Presidents Federal Open Market Comm. Fed Board of Governors Securities Dealers Federal Reserve Bank of New York Commercial Banks Change in Reserves Change in Money Supply
Open Market Operations When the Fed buys Treasury bonds from a bank, it pays for the bonds by crediting the bank with an increase in reserves. When the Fed sells Treasury bonds to a bank, it accepts payment for the bonds by debiting the bank’s reserve position at the Fed
Discount Loans When the Fed makes a discount loan to a bank, the bank is credited with an increase in reserves. When a bank repays the Fed, the bank’s reserves are debited.
Reserve Requirements If the Fed increases reserve requirements, banks have fewer excess reserves to lend, causing the expansion of deposits to decrease. If the Fed decreases or eliminates reserve requirements, banks have more excess reserves to lend, permitting the expansion of deposits to increase.
Excess Reserves Banks determine the level of excess reserves –Increases in excess reserves diminish the expansion of deposits. –Decreases in excess reserves increase the expansion of deposits
Currency Drains Members of the non-bank public determine currency in circulation –Increases in currency drains from the banking system, diminish the expansion of deposits –Decreases in currency drains from the banking system, increase the expansion of deposits
Central Bank Policy Channels Policy Tools Level & Growth Bank Reserves Cost & Availability of Credit Size and Growth Rate of Money Supply Market Value of Securities Volume and Growth of Borrowing and Spending by the Public Full Employment Growth Price Stability