Presentation on theme: "Books of accounts and financial statements"— Presentation transcript:
1 Books of accounts and financial statements Chapter No.3Books of accounts and financial statements
2 Books of accounts and financial statements Books of account to be kept by company [SECTION -230]A Company should keep proper books of account in respect of:Cash received and expended by the company.Sales and purchases of goods by the companyAll Assets and purchases of goods by the companyIn case of a company engaged in production, processing, manufacturing, or mining activities, a production record as may be required by the commission through a general or special order.Books of account should be preserved for ten years;Books of account are to be kept at the registered office of the company . If kept at any other place, the registrar should be informed;Books of account should give true and fair view of the state of affairs of the company and should contain explanation of transactions.
3 Conti…Directors can inspect the books of account during the business hours.If company fails to comply with the above provisions a director, including chief executive and chief account:
4 Conti… Accounting Cycle Transaction Document Voucher Books of original entry/ journal/ Day BookBooks of secondary entry/ LedgerFinancial statementTransactionSalePurchaseSale returnPurchase returnCash receivedCash paid
6 Conti… Books of Original Entry Purchase journal Sale journal Purchase return journalSales return journalCash book(two/three column)Petty cash bookGeneral journal/ transfer journal
7 Conti… Financial Statement Balance sheet Income statement Statement of changes in equityCash flow statement
8 Conti…Recording of Transactions from source Documents To enter into transaction need approval from our responsible managers. When, after approval of a manager, transaction takes place, such transaction should be evidenced by a document. Because, to record a transaction into the books of account, a bookkeeper needs an evidence of proper approval of transaction and authorization of documents, therefore, a voucher is prepared on which all of the descriptions of the transaction are written up and with which all of the evidences of approvals and authorized document are attached. Such voucher is finally authorized by accounts manager which is then recorded in the books of accounts by bookkeeper.
9 Example of recording of transactions To have a more clear understanding of the above paragraph, lets have a step by step examples of purchasing an air conditioning plant for workshop.Production manager will send a requisition to the general manager for air conditioning the workshop to improve the working environment.The general manager will approve the requisition ( if he gets convinced that workshop is in real need of air conditioning plant) and will send this approval to the purchase department.The purchase department will call a tender and after having received several quotations the purchase department will place a purchase order to the vendor quoting lowest rate.(all of the above procedure in properly documented).
10 Conti…4. The vendor company (supplier) will send an invoice (Purchase invoice) to the business along with the air conditioning plant. Such air conditioning plant will be inspected by the expert and finally the invoice will be I approved for Payment. 5. Now all the documents along with the purchase invoice shall be send to the bookkeeper office where a voucher will be prepared and also will be approved by the concerned manager for recording this transaction in the books of account.
11 Example of recording of transaction Following are the few examples of source documents which are required to support different types of transactions.Sr. No.TransactionSalesPurchaseSales ReturnPurchase returnCash ReceivedCash PaidLease/Hire purchaseStaff SalariesSource DocumentsSales Invoice issuedPurchase Invoice receivedCredit Note issuedCredit Note receivedCash Memo/receipt issuedCash Memo/receiptAgreements approvePayrolls12345678
12 Recording in the booksApproved voucher are recorded in books of accounts, many business nowadays use computers for recording of transactions. However , an understanding of book of accounts is necessary whether transactions are recorded normally or electronically. Basically there are two types of books of accounts which are used to record the business transactions 1. Books of original entities. 2. Books of secondary entities. These are farther subdivided according to the need of the business and/or complexity of the transaction. Following diagram best describes the different books of accounts which are used in the business for recording transactions.
14 Conti…Just after analyzing a transaction or event for its debit and credit effects it is required to record them in a systematic way. So the books of accounts in which Debit and Credit are initially recorded in a systematic way are known as books of original entry (BOE). In accounting system of business concern books of original entries posses a very important position.
15 Conti…JOURNAL:It depends upon the complexity of transactions and size of the business that what books of original entries are required to record the transactions. For a very little business, having very few cash and credit transactions, a general purpose journal is sufficient to record each type of transactions.Journal is a very first book of account in which all the business transactions and events are recorded. In this book transactions and events are recorded in a (date) sequence. Both of the accounting effects (Debit & Credit) are recorded in it in a systematic way. Information recorded in the journal for a transaction or an event is known as journal entry.
16 Sketch of a journal entry Date 2003ParticularsPost Ref.Debit (Rs)Credit (Rs)Jan. 10Salaries Account (Debit)Cash Account (Credit)(Staff salaries paid in cash).391050,000Cash Memo
17 Conti…From the above illustration we can understand that 10th January 2003, business paid cash Rs as staff salaries. It is customary that the accounting head analyzed as debit is written firstly in the particulars` column and its amount is written in the debit column whereas the accounting head analyzed as credit is written under the debit accounting head but after indenting a little space from the left side, its amount is written in the credit column. The column of post reference cannot be very well understood without having knowledge of Ledger, any how, the column post reference shows page number of the Ledger in which salaries and cash account are posted. Words written within the parenthesis in the particulars column are known as “Narration of a transaction or event”; it is integral part of a journal entry. Narration explains the accounting treatments to a layman.