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Financial and Managerial Accounting Wild, Shaw, and Chiappetta Fifth Edition Wild, Shaw, and Chiappetta Fifth Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Financial and Managerial Accounting Wild, Shaw, and Chiappetta Fifth Edition Wild, Shaw, and Chiappetta Fifth Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Financial and Managerial Accounting Wild, Shaw, and Chiappetta Fifth Edition Wild, Shaw, and Chiappetta Fifth Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 2 Analyzing and Recording Transactions

3 Conceptual Learning Objectives C1: Explain the steps in processing transactions and the role of source documents. C2: Describe an account and its use in recording transactions. C3: Describe a ledger and a chart of accounts. C4: Define debits and credits and explain double-entry accounting. 2-3

4 Analytical Learning Objectives A1: A nalyze the impact of transactions on accounts and financial statements. A2: Compute the debt ratio and describe its use in analyzing financial condition. 2-4

5 Procedural Learning Objectives P1: Record transactions in a journal and post entries to a ledger. P2: Prepare and explain the use of a trial balance. P3: Prepare financial statements from business transactions. 2-5

6 External Transactions occur between the organization and an outside party. Internal Transactions occur within the organization. Analyzing and Recording Process Exchanges of economic consideration between two parties. C 1 2-6

7 Analyze each transaction and event from source documents Analyzing and Recording Process Record relevant transactions and events in a journal Post journal information to ledger accounts Prepare and analyze the trial balance C 1 2-7

8 Sales Tickets Bank Statements Purchase Orders Checks Source Documents Bills from Suppliers Employee Earnings Records C 1 2-8

9 An account is a record of increases and decreases in a specific asset, liability, equity, revenue, or expense item. The Account and Its Analysis The general ledger is a record containing all accounts used by the company. C 2 2-9

10 Assets Accounts Asset Accounts = The Account and Its Analysis + Liability Accounts Equity Accounts C2 2-10

11 Land Equipment Buildings Cash Notes Receivable Supplies Prepaid Accounts Accounts Receivable Asset Accounts C

12 Accrued Liabilities Unearned Revenue Notes Payable Accounts Payable Liability Accounts C

13 Equity Accounts Revenues Common Stock Dividends Expenses Equity Accounts C 2 Retained Earnings Retained Earnings 2-13

14 Liabilities Equity Assets =+ The Account and Its Analysis Common Stock Dividends Revenues Expenses ++ –– C

15 Ledger and Chart of Accounts The ledger is a collection of all accounts for an information system. A company’s size and diversity of operations affect the number of accounts needed. The ledger is a collection of all accounts for an information system. A company’s size and diversity of operations affect the number of accounts needed. The chart of accounts is a list of all accounts and includes an identifying number for each account. C

16 A T-account represents a ledger account and is a tool used to understand the effects of one or more transactions. Debits and Credits C4 2-16

17 Liabilities Equity Assets =+ Double-Entry Accounting Debit Credit ASSETS + - LIABILITIES - + EQUITY - + C4 2-17

18 Revenues Expenses Common Stock Dividends _ _ + + _ _ Debit Credit Stock - + Debit Credit Dividends + - Debit Credit Expenses + - Debit Credit Revenues - + Double-Entry Accounting Equity C

19 Double-Entry Accounting An account balance is the difference between the increases and decreases in an account. Notice the T-Account C4 2-19

20 Journalizing and Posting Transactions Step 1: Analyze transactions and source documents. Liabilities Equity Assets =+ Step 2: Apply double- entry accounting Step 4: Post entry to ledger Step 3: Record journal entry P1 2-20

21  Dollar Amount of Debits and Credits Journalizing Transactions  Transaction Date  Transaction Explanation  Titles of Affected Accounts P1 2-21

22 T-accounts are useful illustrations, but balance column accounts are used in practice. Balance Column Account P1 2-22

23 1 1 Identify the debit account in ledger. Posting Journal Entries P1 2-23

24 2 2 Enter the date in the ledger. Posting Journal Entries P1 2-24

25 3 3 Enter the amount and description. Posting Journal Entries P1 2-25

26 4 4 Enter the journal reference. Posting Journal Entries P1 2-26

27 5 5 Compute the balance. Posting Journal Entries P1 2-27

28 Enter the ledger reference into the general journal. 6 6 Posting Journal Entries P1 2-28

29 Analyzing Transactions Analysis: Double entry: Posting: A Transaction: Shareholder invested $30,000 in FastForward on Dec. 1 (1) 30,000 Common Stock

30 Analyzing Transactions Analysis: Double entry: Posting: A Transaction: FastForward purchases supplies by paying $2,500 in cash

31 Analyzing Transactions Double entry: Posting: A1 Analysis: 2-31 Transaction: FastForward purchases equipment by paying $26,000 cash.

32 Analyzing Transactions Analysis: Double entry: Posting: A1 2-32

33 Analyzing Transactions Analysis: Double entry: Posting: A (3) 4,200 Consulting Revenue (1) 30,000(2) 2,500 (5) 4,200(3) 26,000 Cash

34 After processing its remaining transactions for December, FastForward’s trial balance is prepared. Debits Credits Cash4,350$ Accounts receivable- Supplies9,720 Prepaid insurance2,400 Equipment26,000 Accounts payable6,200$ Unearned consulting revenue3,000 Common stock30,000 Dividends200 Consulting revenue5,800 Rental revenue300 Salaries expense1,400 Rent expense1,000 Utilities expense230 Totals45,300$ $ FASTFORWARD December 31, 2013 The trial balance lists all account balances in the general ledger. If the books are in balance, the total debits will equal the total credits. P Trial Balance

35 Six Steps for Searching for and Correcting Errors If the trial balance does not balance, the error(s) must be found and corrected.  Verify that the trial balance columns are correctly added.  Verify that account balances are correctly entered from the ledger.  See whether a debit (or credit) balance is mistakenly listed as a credit (or debit).  Recompute each account balance in the ledger.  Verify that each journal entry is properly posted.  Verify that each original journal entry has equal debits and credits. P2 2-35

36 Using a Trial Balance to Prepare Financial Statements Statement of Cash Flows Income Statement Statement of Retained Earnings Beginning Balance Sheet Ending Balance Sheet Period of Time Point in Time P3 2-36

37 Income Statement P3 2-37

38 Statement of Retained Earnings P3 2-38

39 Balance Sheet P3 2-39

40 o Describes the relationship between the amounts of the company’s liabilities and assets. o Helps to assess the risk that a company will fail to pay its debts. Debt Ratio A2 2-40

41 End of Chapter


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