Presentation on theme: "CLASSIFICATION OF ACCOUNTS. Accounting is the language of business. The affairs and the results of the business are communicated to others through accounting."— Presentation transcript:
Accounting is the language of business. The affairs and the results of the business are communicated to others through accounting information, which has to be systematically recorded and presented.
CLASSIFICATION OF ACCOUNTS Every business deal with other “Person”, possesses “Assets”, pay “Expenses” and receive “Income”. So from the above, we can see every business has to keep An account for each person An account for each asset and An account for each expense or income.
CLASSIFICATION OF ACCOUNTS Accounts in the names of persons are known as “Personal Accounts” Accounts in the names of assets are known as “Real Accounts” Accounts in respect of expenses and incomes are known as “Nominal Accounts”
CLASSIFICATION OF ACCOUNTS ACCOUNTS PERSONAL ACCOUNTS IMPERSONAL ACCOUNTS REAL ACCOUNTS NOMINAL ACCOUNTS
PERSONAL ACCOUNTS Accounts in the name of persons are known as personal accounts. Eg: Babu A/C, Babu & Co. A/C, Outstanding Salaries A/C, etc.
REAL ACCOUNTS These are accounts of assets or properties. Assets may be tangible or intangible. Real accounts are impersonal which are tangible or intangible in nature. Eg:- Cash a/c, Building a/c, etc are Real Accounts related to things which we can feel, see and touch. Goodwill a/c, Patent a/c, etc Real Accounts which are of intangible in nature.
NOMINAL ACCOUNTS These accounts are impersonal, but invisible and intangible. Nominal accounts are related to those things which we can feel, but can not see and touch. All “expenses and losses” and all “incomes and gains” fall in this category. Eg:- Salaries A/C, Rent A/C, Wages A/C, Interest Received A/C, Commission Received A/C, Discount A/C, etc.
DEBIT AND CREDIT Each accounts have two sides – the left side and the right side. In accounting, the left side of an account is called the “Debit Side” and the right side of an account is called the “Credit Side”. The entries made on the left side of an account is called a “Debit Entry” and the entries made on the right side of an account is called a “Credit Entry”.
RULES FOR DEBIT AND CREDIT Personal Account Debit the Receiver Credit the Giver Real Accounts Debit what comes in Credit what goes out Nominal Accounts Debit all Expenses and Losses Credit all Incomes and Gains
Steps for finding the debit and credit aspects of a particular transaction Find out the two accounts involved in the transaction. Check whether it belongs to Personal, Real or Nominal account. Apply the debit and credit rules for the two accounts.
Exercise Purchased a Building for Rs.20,000/-. Paid Cash Rs.1,000/- to Satheesh. Paid Salary Rs.1000/-. Received Commission Rs.250/-. Sold goods for Cash Rs.3500/-.
Subsidiary Books General Journal Special Journals Purchase Book Sales Book Purchase Return Book Sales Return Book Bills Receivable Book Bills Payable Book Cash Book Petty Cash Book
Journal Journal is the prime or original book of entry in which all transactions are recorded in the form of entries. Journalising is an act of recording or entering transactions in a Journal in the order of date. DateParticularsLFDebitAmount Credit Amount
Journal Entry Jan 1, 1981 Prakash Started a business Rs. 15,000/- DateParticularsLFDebitAmount Credit Amount 1981 Jan 1 Cash a/c Dr. To Prakash’s Capital a/c To Prakash’s Capital a/c (Being cash invetsed to business) 15,00015,000