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1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill.

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Presentation on theme: "1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 2 Chapter 16 Lymphatic System and Immunity network of vessels that assist in circulating fluids closely associated with the cardiovascular system transports excess fluid away from interstitial spaces transports fluid to the bloodstream transports fats to bloodstream help defend the body against diseases

3 3 Lymphatic Pathways

4 4 Lymphatic Capillaries microscopic closed-ended tubes in interstitial spaces of most tissues

5 5 Lymphatic Vessels walls are similar but thinner than those of veins composed of three layers endothelial lining (inner) smooth muscle (middle) connective tissue (outer) larger vessels lead to lymph nodes and then to larger lymphatic trunks

6 6 Lymphatic Trunks drain lymph from the lymphatic vessels named for the regions they serve lumbar intestinal intercostal bronchomediastinal subclavian jugular

7 7 Collecting Ducts Right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the upper right side of the body Thoracic duct drains lymph from the rest of the body

8 8 Summary of Lymphatic Pathway

9 9 Tissue Fluid and Lymph Lymph tissue fluid that has entered a lymphatic capillary Lymph formation dependent on tissue fluid formation

10 10 Tissue Fluid Formation Tissue fluid originates from plasma contains water and dissolved substances contains smaller proteins which create colloid osmotic pressure

11 11 Lymph Formation increasing hydrostatic pressure within interstitial spaces forces tissue fluid into lymphatic capillaries resultant fluid is lymph this process prevents accumulation of excess tissue fluid or edema

12 12 Lymph Function absorption of dietary fats delivers fats to bloodstream collection of excess interstitial fluids delivers excess fluids to bloodstream delivers foreign particles to lymph nodes

13 13 Lymph Function

14 14 Lymph Movement action of skeletal muscles respiratory movements smooth muscle in larger lymphatic vessels valves in lymphatic vessels

15 15 Lymph Nodes

16 16 Locations of Lymph Nodes cervical region axillary region supratrochlear region inguinal region pelvic cavity abdominal cavity thoracic cavity

17 17 Functions of Lymph Nodes filter potentially harmful particles from lymph immune surveillance by macrophages and lymphocytes areas of lymphocyte production

18 18 Thymus small in an adult site of T lymphocyte production secretes thymosins

19 19 Spleen largest lymphatic organ located in upper left abdominal quadrant sinuses filled with blood contains two tissue types white pulp lymphocytes red pulp red blood cells lymphocytes macrophages

20 20 Major Organs of Lymphatic System

21 21 Body Defenses Against Infection pathogen disease causing agent bacteria, viruses, complex microorganisms, spores of multicellular organisms innate defenses general defenses protects against many pathogens adaptive defenses immunity more specific carried out by lymphocytes

22 22 Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses

23 23 Inflammation Response

24 24 Adaptive (Specific) Defenses or Immunity resistance to particular pathogens or to their toxins or metabolic by-products based on the ability to distinguish “self” from “non-self” antigens elicit immune responses

25 25 Antigens proteins polysaccharides glycoproteins glycolipids most effective are large and complex haptens are small molecules that are not antigenic by themselves

26 26 Lymphocyte Origins Insert figure 16.16

27 27 Lymphocyte Functions T cells secrete lymphokines help activate T cells cause T cell proliferation activate cytotoxic T cells stimulate leukocyte production stimulate B cells to mature activate macrophages secrete toxins that kill cells secrete growth-inhibiting factors secrete interferon cellular immune response

28 28 Lymphocyte Functions B cells differentiate into plasma cells produce antibodies humoral immune response

29 29 Comparison of T and B Cells

30 30 T Cells and the Cellular Immune Response requires antigen-presenting cell requires MHC antigens types of T cells helper T cell cytotoxic T cell memory T cell

31 31 T Cell and B Cell Activation

32 32 B Cell Activation, Stimulation and Proliferation

33 33 B Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

34 34 Steps in Antibody Production

35 35 Antibody Molecules

36 36 Types of Immunoglobulins

37 37 Antibody Actions

38 38 Immune Responses

39 39 Classifications of Immunity

40 40 Allergic Reactions Immune attacks against nonharmful substances that can damage tissues

41 41 Allergic Reactions Type I immediate-reaction allergy occurs minutes after contact with allergen hives hay fever asthma eczema gastric disturbances anaphylactic shock

42 42 Allergic Reactions Type II antibody-dependent cytotoxic reaction takes 1-3 hours to develop transfusion reaction Type III immune-complex reaction takes 1-3 hours to develop antibody complexes cannot be cleared from body damage of body tissues

43 43 Allergic Reactions Type IV delayed-reaction allergy results from repeated exposure to allergen eruptions and inflammation of the skin takes about 48 hours to occur

44 44 Transplantation and Tissue Rejection Transplanted tissues and organs cornea kidney liver pancreas heart bone marrow skin Tissue rejection reaction resembles cellular immune response against antigens important to match MHC antigens immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent rejection

45 45 Four Major Varieties of Grafts

46 46 Autoimmunity inability to distinguish “self” from “non-self”

47 47 Life-Span Changes immune system declines early in life when thymus gland shrinks higher risk of infections antibody response to antigens becomes slower IgA and IgG antibodies increase IgM and IgE antibodies decrease

48 48 Clinical Application Immunity Breakdown: AIDS recurrent fever weakness weight loss caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV impairs macrophages and helper T cells later in infection, HIV impairs cytotoxic T cells HIV mutates quickly immune system cannot keep up with HIV

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