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Naya, Shannon, Alina, Jowell’la, Jordanna, Satin, Kelsey, and Kenysia.

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Presentation on theme: "Naya, Shannon, Alina, Jowell’la, Jordanna, Satin, Kelsey, and Kenysia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Naya, Shannon, Alina, Jowell’la, Jordanna, Satin, Kelsey, and Kenysia

2 Functions of Lymphatic System Responsible for returning tissue fluid to the blood and for protecting the body against foreign material Drains fluid from around cells Absorbs fat from intestines Circulates and Filters lymph Immunity

3 Lymphatic Vessels Structures of the lymphatic system that transport fluid away from tissues The vessels transport a clear fluid called lymph Lymph is returned to the circulatory system at either the right or left subclavian veins.

4 Lymphatic Ducts Large vessels that drain the lymph into the blood in veins (subclavian) in the neck area

5 Lymphatic Nodes Clusters of small encapsulated masses of lymphatic tissue located at strategic spots in the lymph system. Size of a pin head or lima bean Lymph enters the node through afferent vessels and leaves through a single efferent vessel. Function: filter

6 Lymphatic Glands/ Structures Thymus – Located inferiorly to the thyroid gland in the mediastinum. Produces T-lymphocytes (T-cells) and secretes thymosin and other hormones Spleen – Largest lymphoid organ in the body located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, lateral to the stomach, just below the diaphragm Tonsils – Located in the pharynx form a protective ring under the mucous membranes in the mouth and back of throat.


8 Lymph A clear fluid that comes from blood plasma that exits blood vessels at capillary beds.

9 White Blood Cells also called leukocytes, they are essential for good health and protection against illness and disease account for only about 1 percent of your blood they flow through your bloodstream to battle viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders that threaten your health.

10 Lymphocytes The most numerous cells of the immune system responsible for antibody production Type of white blood cell B Lymphocytes (B cells) – Some lymphocytes remain in the bone marrow, where in humans they develop into B cells. T Lymphocytes (T cells) – Some lymphocytes move to the thymus, where they mature into T cells

11 Antibodies/Antigens Antigens – Chemical markers that identify cells – Each cells has its own set of markers Antibodies – Proteins produced by plasma cells in response to foreign antigens; each one is specific for a certain antigen

12 Cytokines cell signaling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma. Examples include the agents interleukin and the interferon

13 Phagocytosis Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, derived from none marrow, carry out ingestion and digestion of foreign cells or particles Monocytes develop into macrophages Macrophages-some wander and some are fixed

14 Adaptive Immunity called into action against pathogens that are able to evade or overcome innate immune defenses components “adapt” to the presence of infectious agents by activating, proliferating, and creating potent mechanisms for neutralizing or eliminating the microbes.

15 Acquired Immunity When the immune system encounters foreign substances (antigens), the components of acquired immunity learn the best way to attack each antigen and begin to develop a memory for that antigen.

16 Specific and Nonspecific responses Specific – innate immunity – the human body protects itself against foreign material that is perceived to be harmful Nonspecific – a complement to the function of phagocytes and other elements of the innate immune system – allows for a targeted response against a specific pathogen

17 Structure of Epithelium & Connective Tissue Epithelium – 1) It protects us from the outside world - skin – 2) Absorbs – stomach and intestinal lining (gut) – 3) Filters – the kidney – 4) Secretes – forms glands Connective – 1) Wraps around and cushions and protects organs – 2) Stores nutrients – 3) Internal support for organs – 4) As tendon and ligaments protects joints and attached muscles to bone and each other – 5) Runs through organ capsules and in deep layers of skin giving strength

18 How the body responds to invasion of bacteria and viruses Fixed plasma cells produce antibodies in response to foreign material and these antibodies then circulate in the blood stream.

19 How the body responds to transplants the immune system recognizes it as foreign material and therefore attempts to attack and destroy it. immunosuppressive drugs must be administered to prevent the body from attacking it, in an attempt to introduce tolerance of the transplanted organ.

20 Autoimmune Disease An autoimmune disease develops when your immune system decides your healthy cells are foreign. As a result, your immune system attacks healthy body cells. Depending on the type, an autoimmune disease can affect one or many different types of body tissue. It can also cause abnormal organ growth and changes in organ function.


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