Presentation on theme: "Differentiated Learning Strategy Instruction Anna Uhl Chamot National Capital Language Resource Center The George Washington University Washington, DC."— Presentation transcript:
Differentiated Learning Strategy Instruction Anna Uhl Chamot National Capital Language Resource Center The George Washington University Washington, DC
OBJECTIVES o Suggest guidelines for teaching language learning strategies. o Explain how to identify and expand students’ learning strategies. o Suggest ways to differentiate instruction for diverse learners.
DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND LEARNING STRATEGY KNOWLEDGE/ USE Low to high language proficiency levels. Low to high levels of learning strategy knowledge/ use (how to learn skills). Means at least four combinations of language proficiency + learning strategy knowledge/ use.
1 (LLP + LSKU) Low Language Proficiency (LLP) 3(HLP + LSKU) 2 (LLP + HLSKU) 4 (HLP + HLSKU) High Language Proficiency (HLP ) Low Strategy Knowledge/ Use High Strategy Knowledge/ Use LANGUAGE AND STRATEGY CONTINUA
UNDERSTANDING STUDENTS’ VARIED APPROACHES TO LEARNING Ask students how they complete specific tasks.Ask students how they complete specific tasks. Ask students' other teachers how your students learn in their classes.Ask students' other teachers how your students learn in their classes. Have students identify favorite subjects, interests, special abilities.Have students identify favorite subjects, interests, special abilities. Identify students’ learning strategies for both language and content tasks.Identify students’ learning strategies for both language and content tasks.
W HAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES? Students’ thoughts and actions that assist their learning. Ways to understand, remember, and recall information. Ways to practice skills more efficiently (Chamot, 2009).
IDENTIFY STUDENT’S CURRENT LEARNING STRATEGIES Class discussions about strategies. Interviews with students. Learning strategy journals. Student think-alouds. Questionnaires and checklists.
EXPAND STUDENT’S CURRENT LEARNING STRATEGIES Model how to use the learning strategy. Name the strategy in the target language. Tell when and how to use it. Students tell how they use it (if they already do). Make strategies concrete with visuals and realia! Have students practice and evaluate their use of learning strategies.
DEVELOP STUDENTS’ METACOGNITION Model metacognitive awareness. Ask students to describe their thinking processes. Have students take increasing responsibility for their own learning.
WHAT IS DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION? Provides instruction for diverse learners; Builds on learners’ prior knowledge; Addresses students’ interests and needs; Provides alternate paths to achievement; Assesses important concepts and skills; Uses varied rates of instruction; and Organizes the classroom into collaborative learning teams.
WHY DIFFERENTIATE INSTRUCTION? Provides access and success for all students. Increases student motivation. Leads to more efficient learning.
WHEN TO DIFFERENTIATE When students are unmotivated, bored, or struggling. As a reward for accomplishment. When teaching a combination level class. When disparity exists in students’ language proficiency and their content knowledge. When the teacher needs to work with one group.
1 Low Language Proficiency High Language Proficiency Low Strategy Knowledge/ Use High Strategy Knowledge/ Use PLANNING DIFFERENTIATED TASKS 24 3 I NDEPENDENT TASK (HLP + HSKU) ANCHOR TASK (MLP + MSKU) SCAFFO LDED TASK (LLP + LSKU)
PLANNING DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT - 1 Identify important concept or “big idea” – enduring understanding all students should achieve (Wiggins & McTighe, 2006). Identify language proficiency and learning strategy knowledge/ use of each student and use to group students. List different ways you could teach the concept (listening, reading, Internet search, demonstration, video, role play, game, project, oral and written reports, etc.).
PLANNING DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT - 2 Develop language, content, and learning strategy objectives and assessments for mid group (Anchor Task). Plan learning activities to achieve Anchor Task objectives. Identify scaffolding needed by LLP and LSKU students to achieve the same objectives (Scaffolded Task); plan assessment.
PLANNING DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT - 3 Plan expansion and independent activities for HLP and HSKU students to achieve the same objectives (Independent Task); plan assessment. Assign LLP + HLSKU and HLP + LSKU students to one of the three groups, depending on the task.
EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITIES Complexity Ladder Individual Agendas Learning Contracts Group Folders Learning Stations
COMPLEXITY LADDER Select major concept/skill all students need to learn. Identify each student’s language level, interests, talents, prior content knowledge. Create activity to develop concept/skill. Situate activity on Complexity Ladder. Create more and less complex versions. Match students to appropriate version.
INDIVIDUAL AGENDAS Personal list of tasks. Can be done in any order. Completion date (2-3 weeks). Teacher provides class time to work on agendas. Frees teacher for direct instruction to small group.
LEARNING CONTRACTS Specifies task(s) to accomplish. Sets time line for completing each part. Establishes criteria for success. Can be varied to meet individual needs (Anchor, Scaffolded, Independent). Signed by student and teacher.
GROUP FOLDERS Teacher prepares folders with differentiated tasks. Teacher presents topic of lesson. Students work in their groups. Each student assigned a role. Groups work on their tasks. Teacher provides assistance as needed.
LEARNING STATIONS Classroom spots with independent tasks. Signs: Stories and Poems; Think and Write; Drama; Words I Need; Solve This!; Science Lab; History Mysteries. Teacher/student chooses task. Clear directions for each task. Monitoring system for work completed. Teacher provides assistance as needed.
SUMMARY: PLAN THREE LEVELS OF DIFFERENTIATION Identify an important concept to teach (a “big idea”). Develop objectives for content, language, and learning strategies. Identify an assessment for each objective. Plan 3 learning tasks (Anchor, Scaffolded, Independent) to teach concept. Modify the assessment for each task.
REFERENCES and RESOURCES Chamot, A. U. (2009). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach, (2 nd Ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson-Longman. www.nclrc.org www.nclrc.org National Capital Language Resource Center (2007). Sailing the five Cs with learning strategies. www.nclrc.org www.nclrc.org Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2006). Understanding by design, Second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.