6 What is Project Success? Project success occurs when we have:IA delighted client (expectations met)Delivered the agreed objectivesMet an agreed budget - $, resources etc.Within an agreed time frameObjectivesTimeCostProject SuccessThe 'Golden Triangle' ofandIDone it all professionally &without killing the team
7 Why Do Projects Fail? Changing scope Insufficient planning No risk or issues managementPoor communicationLack of commitment and responsibility by stakeholders
8 Who Are Stakeholders? Steering Committee Senior Mgmt Clients & Users ProjectInterdependentProjectsAcademic &Business UnitsOutside Groups(Vendors)InformationTechnologyTeamMembers
9 Project Management A Maturity Model best practice best practice competentSuccess rate betterthan 75%awareawareawareeSuccess rate of 45to 75%seatseatof theofpantspantsSuccess rate of 30to 45%Success rate lessthan 30%
10 Seat of Pants Projects happen without correct initiation Success rate lessthan 30%Projects happen without correct initiationPlanning is insufficientBenefits are unknownThere is often inadequate buy-inCommunication is poorInterdependencies are not managedStandards, if any, are poorly defined or unenforced.
11 AwareawareSuccess rate of 30To 40%Projects are formally initiated & plans endorsed but with varying standards and few disciplinesMethodology has been introducedStakeholders support projects overallThe number of projects is rationalizedProjects are explicitly associated with business planning
12 Competent Methodology and standards are well established and supported Success rate of 45 To 75%competentMethodology and standards are well established and supportedStakeholders understand and accept rolesDiscrete measures support good managementProjects are set up and managed end-to-endRisks are clearly defined and controlled
13 Best Practice Improvement programs are formal Success rate better than 75%Improvement programs are formalGood measurement enables optimizationLevel of confidence sees organization taking on high risk projects successfullyRespect and support of projects and project managers
14 Why Should We Care? To Increase the likelihood that projects will : be done on time and within budgetmeet people’s expectationsbe done well
15 Project Office Mission To enable the successful implementation of OIT initiatives in a way that establishes a project management culture so that we deliver projects on time, within budget and with expected results.
16 How? Define a Princeton Project Management Methodology (PPMM) Support and MentorOffer TrainingFacilitation, Audit, Review
18 Project Management Process Tracking& ControlPlanningInitiationComplete&AssessReportingReviewInitiationPlanDetailedPlanStatusReportPostProjectReviewReport
19 Management Techniques To increase the likelihood of project success you must manage:StakeholdersRisksIssuesChange
20 How to Manage Stakeholders A stakeholder is any person or group who, if their support were to be withdrawn, could cause the project to fail.- Get them involved- Keep them informed- Gain their endorsement
21 How to Manage Stakeholders Identify stakeholdersInvolve in planningEstablish expectations / accountabilitiesFormal communicationGain sign-offChange and issues resolutionProject reviewsDefine project completion
22 Risk Management What is “risk”? Any factor capable of causing the project to go off track.Develop and monitor a Risk Plan
23 Issues ManagementUnresolved issues will drive a project towards failure and consume a significant part of a project manager’s time.Stakeholders play key role in issues management and resolution- Establish Issues log, review, escalation process
24 Change ManagementUncontrolled changes to a project will probably account for up to 30% of a project’s total effort.If these changes are not managed, the project will be viewed to be over time and over budget.- Establish a Change management process
25 PPMM Summary Overview The Process Initiation Planning - Track/Control - Report - ReviewCompletion and AssessmentManagement TechniquesStakeholder ManagementRisk ManagementIssues ManagementChange Management
30 Recommended Best Practices Project Planning and ManagementFollow proven methodologiesActive Executive/Project SponsorIdentify / revisit “critical success” factorsDocument assumptionsBusiness process change vs. customizationWhat has worked at Princeton over the past 1 1/2 years according to our project managers?It is essential to follow a proven methodology in managing projects.A strong executive sponsor is critical. It was Ray Clark who, as the Ex. Sponsor on the Coeus project, was able to get stakeholder buy in and consensus on the project.Active Project Sponsor -- it was Van Williams acting as the STRipes project sponsor who played a key role as the project champion. He attended team meetings and sent congratulating the team for completing milestones as the project unfolded.
31 Recommended Best Practices Project Planning and ManagementHave technical staff in place at start-upPlan for backfillInvolve Steering Committee earlyPlan production support in central officesPlan for applying fixesPlan for “end of project”Plan for vacation/sick timeTechnical staff in place -- UFINSI was interviewing for 3 technical positions when the project had already begun. Have people hired and in place ready to go when project officially starts.Backfill -- may not be able to backfill certain positions by hiring new person (since they won’t know how University works). May have to give pieces of job to a group of individuals and hire clerical person to pick up pieces. Be creative when backfilling. Plan for space where individuals backfilling can work.Production support -- have adequate resources trained and taking the lead in central offices. This should be individuals, such as Assistant Directors or Managers, who will be project champions and can make certain that new processes and work procedures are in place to accommodate the new system.Plan for a strategy of applying fixes. There can be a lot of them.Plan for redesign and “production mock up” -- When testing try to have the environment simulate the production environment as realistically as possible (data, security, customizations, schedules).
32 Recommended Best Practices Scheduling, Tracking and ControlBreak large projects into phases(no > months total)Control phase “bleed over”Post phase assessments“Go/No Go” decision pointsSponsor sign-offReview Scope periodicallyAt the beginning (Initiation Plan) its difficult to know effort required on project. Won’t really understand until complete scoping (what are our business processes;what are our priorities/prototyping (how does this fit with PeopleSoft) how long project will take.Give date ranges up front. Get understanding from sponsor that critical milestone dates can be adjusted once complete prototyping.Control phase bleed over by holding post phase assessment at end of each phase. Isolate, analyze, monitor and control tasks that are bleeding over.Review scope periodically -- do at least quarterly to make sure staying on track and that there isn’t scope creep (UFINSI wrote once and never revisited).
33 Recommended Best Practices Scheduling, Tracking and ControlBuilding learning curve into plansWeekly team meetingsDetail planning in 1-2 month segmentsDefine and manage to “critical path”What’s importantPrioritizeWho, what, whenUFINSI and STRIPES hold weekly team meetings to keep project on trackUFINSI found detail planning in two month segments worked well and was manageableUFINSI used consultants to help keep project on track since they had good people management skillsOral status reports were ofen more efficient for project manager to put together and worked effectively with sponsorStripes & UFINSI recommends looking at critical milestones and then analyzing what is absolutely essential to do, prioritize those tasks, and determine who does what when.
34 Recommended Best Practices ReportingEstablish monthly status reportingHold monthly status reviews with key stakeholdersOral status reports are effectiveKeep users of system (middle managers) informedUFINSI and STRIPES hold weekly team meetings to keep project on trackUFINSI found detail planning in two month segments worked well and was manageableUFINSI used consultants to help keep project on track since they had good people management skillsOral status reports were ofen more efficient for project manager to put together and worked effectively with sponsorStripes & UFINSI recommends looking at critical milestones and then analyzing what is absolutely essential to do, prioritize those tasks, and determine who does what when.
35 Recommended Best Practices ResourcingResource PlanCross functional teams workCo-locate teamsProjects are full time jobComplete training before prototypingHave full team train togetherLeverage investmentBuild team spiritTeam building -- take team on retreat if they haven’t worked together before (Kim is doing this with Student project); build memories (pictures in scrap book, mugs, t-shirts)Stripes team had lots of parties -- pizza parties, cakes celebrating milestones, orange and black stripes halloween party, to build team spirit.Other suggestions: Build team memories (t shirts
36 Recommended Best Practices Managing ExpectationsCommunication PlanMake major policy decisions up frontDon’t make promises to users up frontMonthly status report and reviewMonthly / bi-monthly presentationsArticles, web pages, newslettersSpecial communications from sponsorFocus groups, demos, town meetings
37 Recommended Best Practices Promoting the SystemFocus Groups during gap analysisDemos for every user after first releaseActive Executive Committee showed supportTown meetings to endorse systemMajor presentation to users“Pretzel stick” advertisement
38 Recommended Best Practices MethodologyFollow proven methodologiesConsolidate methodology ( pre-kick off )Functional reps go to all prototypingUse standard report formatsCo-locate developer with tester (short term)
39 Recommended Best Practices Managing the Consulting PartnerSelection criteria should includeAbility to transfer knowledgeHelp organize teamFollow proven methodologyProvide good implementation toolsAbility to form good working partnershipHigher Education experienceWork locally (near by or on-site)
40 Recommended Best Practices Managing the Consulting PartnerTake time to define contractTerms and conditions / Statement of work (metrics)Review by Legal, tech., bus., purchasingVeto power to select / reject resourcesFixed price gives University more controlTie payments to acceptance of deliverablesReview quality plansState that the University has methodology
41 Recommended Best Practices Managing the Consulting PartnerForm partnership - make part of teamHave single point of contactBuild one project planConsultant defines phase objectivesBuild in reviews with decision pointsMeet expectations / Go-no go decisionPlan for early transition of knowledgeImplementation done by Princeton
42 Recommended Best Practices Managing the VendorHave single point of contactInclude RFP responses / bind vendor to meetCap maintenance fees (post impl. Phase)Don’t presume product works from day 1Fixes required?Review Quality Plans
43 Recommended Best Practices Managing the VendorKnow package after prototyping (not sales)Include vendor milestones in project planBuild “decision points” into plan where tight vendor dependenciesHave contingency plans in place