2 Types of Sentences Simple: one independent clause Compound: two or more independent clausesComplex: one independent clause and one or more dependent clausesCompound-complex: two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses
3 Types of ClausesA clause contains a subject and a predicate (verb+other elements)Independent clause: a complete thoughtJack and Jill went up the hill.Jack fell down and broke his crown.Dependent clause: an unfinished thoughtSubordinate conjunction: When Jack fell downRelative pronoun: that Jack went up
4 Simple Sentence: one independent clause Declarative sentence:Jack and Jill went up the hill.Jack fell down and broke his crown.Interrogative sentence:Who went up the hill?Exclamatory sentence:Jill came tumbling after!
5 Compound sentences – two or more independent clauses Connected with a co-ordinate conjunction – and, or, nor, but, yet, so, for:Jack fell down and Jill came tumbling after.No co-ordinate conjunction:Jack fell down Jill came tumbling after.,;
6 Compound Sentence Punctuation Errors Run-on (ro) sentence: independent clauses connected with a coordinate conjunction but no comma:Jack fell down and Jill came tumbling after.Fused (fused) sentence: independent clauses bumping into each other:Jack fell down Jill came tumbling after.Comma splice (cs): use of a comma where a semi-colon is neededJack fell down, Jill came tumbling after.
7 Complex sentence – one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses Independent followed by dependent:Jack broke his crown when he fell down.Dependent followed by independent:When Jack fell down he broke his crown.Dependent inserted into independent:Jack who fell down the hill broke his crown.,,,
8 Compound-complex sentence – two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses ,When Jack fell down he broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after.,
9 Simple Rules Independent, and independent. Independent; independent. Independent, and independent.Independent; independent.Dependent, independent.Independent dependent.Cartoon by Bob Staake