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1 Dikoleksi oleh: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013
Mk. PENGELOLAAN SDALH BIODRYING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SUSTAINANBLE ENERGY Dikoleksi oleh: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013

2 Dikoleksi oleh: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013
Biodrying adalah proses dimana limbah biodegradable dengan cepat dipanaskan melalui fase-fase initial pengkomposan untuk menguapkan air dari limbah sehingga mengurangi bobotnya (Choi , Richard , Ahn, 2001). Dikoleksi oleh: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013

3 BIODRYING - BIODEGRADABLE WASTE
Biodrying is the process by which biodegradable waste is rapidly heated through initial stages of composting to remove moisture from a waste stream and hence reduce its overall weight. Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. Waste that cannot be broken down by other living organisms may be called non-biodegradable. Biodegradable waste can be commonly found in municipal solid waste (sometimes called biodegradable municipal waste, or BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper waste, and biodegradable plastics. Other biodegradable wastes include human waste, manure, sewage, slaughterhouse waste. Pengolahan Limbah Through proper waste management, it can be converted into valuable products by composting, or energy by waste-to-energy processes such as anaerobic digestion and incineration. As part of an integrated waste management system, waste-to-energy processes reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. diunduh 17/3/2012

4 BIODRYING In biodrying processes, the drying rates are augmented by biological heat in addition to forced aeration. The major portion of biological heat, naturally available through the aerobic degradation of organic matter, is utilized to evaporate surface and bound water associated with the mixed sludge. This heat generation assists in reducing the moisture content of the biomass without the need for supplementary fossil fuels, and with minimal electricity consumption (Navaee-Ardeh , Bertrand , Stuart, 2006) It can take as little as 8 days to dry waste in this manner. This enables reduced costs of disposal if landfill is charged on a cost per tonne basis. Biodrying may be used as part of the production process for refuse-derived fuels. Biodrying does not however greatly affect the biodegradability of the waste and hence is not stabilised. Biodried waste will still break down in a landfill to produce landfill gas and hence potentially contribute to climate change. Choi HL, Richard TL, Ahn HK (2001). "Composting high moisture materials: biodrying poultry manure in a sequentially fed reactor". Compost Sci. and Util. 9 (4): 303–11. Navaee-Ardeh S, Bertrand F, Stuart PR (2006). "Emerging biodrying technology for the drying of pulp and paper mixed sludges". Drying Technology 24 (7): 863–78. Sugni M, Calcaterra E, Adani F (August 2005). "Biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste by inverting air-flow". Bioresour. Technol. 96 (12): 1331–7. diunduh 7/3/2012

5 LIMBAH YANG DAPAT DIDEGRADASI SECARA BIOLOGIS
Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be degraded by other living organisms. Waste that cannot be broken down by other living organisms are called non-biodegradable. Biodegradable waste can be commonly found in municipal solid waste (sometimes called biodegradable municipal waste, or BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper waste, and biodegradable plastics. Limbah-limbah biodegradable lainnya, termasuk limbah manusia, kandang ternak, rumah potong hewan, limbah dapur. Dalam kondisi tidak ada oksigen, libah-limbah ini akan mengalami perombakan anerobik menghasilkan gas methan. diunduh 7/3/2012

6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradation…… diunduh 7/3/2012
BIODEGRADASI Biodegradation or biotic degradation or biotic decomposition is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria or other biological means. The term is often used in relation to ecology, waste management, biomedicine, and the natural environment (bioremediation) and is now commonly associated with environmentally friendly products that are capable of decomposing back into natural elements. Organic material can be degraded aerobically with oxygen, or anaerobically, without oxygen. A term related to biodegradation is biomineralisation, in which organic matter is converted into minerals. Biosurfactant, merupakan surfaktan ekstraseluler yang dihasilkan oleh mikroba, dapat memacu proses biodegradasi. diunduh 7/3/2012

7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradation…… diunduh 7/3/2012
BIODEGRADABLE MATTER Biodegradable matter is generally organic material such as plant and animal matter and other substances originating from living organisms, or artificial materials that are similar enough to plant and animal matter to be put to use by microorganisms. Some microorganisms have a naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Major methodological breakthroughs in microbial biodegradation have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Ada kalanya produk yang dipasarkan dengan label “BIODEGRADABLE” ternyata juga mengandung bahan yang non-biodegradable diunduh 7/3/2012

8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_material…… diunduh 7/3/2012
BAHAN ORGANIK Organic matter (or organic material, Natural Organic Matter, or NOM) is matter that has come from a once-living organism; is capable of decay, or the product of decay; or is composed of organic compounds. The definition of organic matter varies upon the subject for which it is being used. Organic matter is broken down organic matter that comes from plants and animals in the environment. Organic matter is a collective term, assigned to the realm of all of this broken down organic matter. Basic structures are created from cellulose, tannin, cutin, and lignin, along with other various proteins, lipids, and sugars. It is very important in the movement of nutrients in the environment and plays a role in water retention on the surface of the planet. These two processes help to ensure the continuance of life on Earth. "Natural Organic Matter," GreenFacts, 22 Apr, 2007 <http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/mno/natural-organic-matter-NOM.htm Bahan organik mempunyai peranan sangat penting dalam menentukan ketersediaan unsur hara dalam tanah, retensi lengas tanah dan kualitas tanah lainnya diunduh 7/3/2012

9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass…… diunduh 7/3/2012
BIOMASA Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel. In the first sense, biomass is plant matter used to generate electricity with steam turbines & gasifiers or produce heat, usually by direct combustion. Examples include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). T.A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White, E. Neuhauser, E. Gray, C. Demeter, C. Lindsey, J. Jarnefeld, D.J. Aneshansley, R. Pellerin and S. Edick (October 15–19, 2000). "Developing a Willow Biomass Crop Enterprise for Bioenergy and Bioproducts in the United States". Proceedings of Bioenergy Adam's Mark Hotel, Buffalo, New York, USA: North East Regional Biomass Program. Industri biomasa dapat berupa Hutan Tanaman, Perkebunan, Pertanian, Agroforestry dan lainnya diunduh 7/3/2012

10 RDF = REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL
Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel/ specified recovered fuel (SRF) is a fuel produced by shredding and dehydrating solid waste (MSW) with a Waste converter technology. RDF consists largely of combustible components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable waste. RDF processing facilities are normally located near a source of MSW and, while an optional combustion facility is normally close to the processing facility, it may also be located at a remote location. SRF can be distinguished from RDF in the fact that it is produced to reach a standard such as CEN/343 ANAS. Velis C. et al. (2010) Production and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels using mechanical—biological treatment (MBT) of waste: a comprehensive assessment diunduh 7/3/2012

11 RDF PROCESSING METHODS
Non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are removed during the post-treatment processing cycle with an air knife or other mechanical separation processing. The residual material can be sold in its processed form (depending on the process treatment) or it may be compressed into pellets, bricks or logs and used for other purposes either stand-alone or in a recursive recycling process. Advanced RDF processing methods (pressurised steam treatment in an autoclave) can remove or significantly reduce harmful pollutants and heavy metals for use as a material for a variety of manufacturing and related uses. RDF is extracted from municipal solid waste using mechanical heat treatment, mechanical biological treatment or waste autoclaves. The production of RDF may involve some but not all of the following steps: Preliminary liberation (not required for autoclave treatment) Size screening (post-treatment step for autoclave treatment) Magnetic separation (post-treatment for autoclave treatment) Coarse shredding (not required for autoclave treatment) Refining separation Ref.: Williams, P. (1998) Waste Treatment and Disposal. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester diunduh 7/3/2012

12 Biological processing
The "biological" element refers to either: Anaerobic digestion Composting Biodrying Anaerobic digestion harnesses anaerobic microorganisms to break down the biodegradable component of the waste to produce biogas and soil improver. The biogas can be used to generate electricity and heat. Biological can also refer to a composting stage. Here the organic component is broken down by naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms. They breakdown the waste into carbon dioxide and compost. There is no green energy produced by systems employing only composting treatment for the biodegradable waste. In the case of biodrying, the waste material undergoes a period of rapid heating through the action of aerobic microbes. During this partial composting stage the heat generated by the microbes result in rapid drying of the waste. These systems are often configured to produce a refuse-derived fuel where a dry, light material is advantageous for later transport combustion. By processing the biodegradable waste either by anaerobic digestion or by composting MBT technologies help to reduce the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming. Usable wastes for this system: Municipal solid waste Commercial and industrial waste Sewage sludge Possible products of this system: Renewable fuel (biogas) leading to renewable power Recovered recycable materials such as metals, paper, plastics, glass etc. Digestate - an organic fertiliser and soil improver Carbon credits – additional revenues High calorific fraction refuse derived fuel - Renewable fuel content dependent upon biological component Residual unusable materials prepared for their final safe treatment (e.g. incineration or gasification) and/or landfill Further advantages: Small fraction of inert residual waste Reduction of the waste volume to be deposited to at least a half (density > 1.3 t/m³), thus the lifetime of the landfill is at least twice as long as usually Utilisation of the leachate in the process Landfill gas not problematic as biological component of waste has been stabilised Daily covering of landfill not necessary diunduh 7/3/2012

13 REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF)
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is classified as an innovation of waste-to-energy technology created by shredding and drying out municipal solid waste material. The raw material mostly used for conversion is the combustible fraction of waste which usually consists of plastics and biodegradable matter. Refuse-derived fuel facilities are usually located near landfills and dumpsites for efficiency of access and acquisition of waste materials and less transportation cost. Refuse Derived Fuel production starts by collection and transportation of raw materials, and then comes the separation and sorting of municipal solid waste. In this process, the noncombustible and recyclable materials are removed since it does not have the potential to be converted to energy. The noncombustible can still be useful after taking treatment to improve their value. It can be recycled and reserved for use in other purposes. Compression is a good way to reduce the amount of space need for the storage and transportation of the noncombustible. The combustible components on the other hand are prepared to undergo the conversion process. In the conversion process, the RDF  is extracted and removed from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The process is performed by using any of the three methods: autoclaves, applying extreme mechanical heat treatment, or using mechanical biological treatment. Pressurized steam treatment can also be used to remove the existence of heavy metals and other hazardous elements from the raw material. The conversion process is divided into five stages. The process may be divided into five stages: Preliminary Liberation, size screening, magnetic separation, coarse shredding where shredding and compression comes to make it easier to dissolve the waste to energy, and refining separation. Electricity Generation is the primary use of Refuse Derived Fuel. It helps resolve the underlying concerns due to consumption of energy means. Refuse derived fuel process is also classified as a type of green energy as the production of Refuse Derived Fuel use waste which also lessens and eliminates raw materials in exchange for a clean energy source. It is considered as one of the great innovation of our present time because it resolves both waste management and energy dilemmas. This process lessens the emission of gas in the air, and it lessens the waste in the dumpsites and landfills worldwide. The use of this technology is expected to pave the way for the salvation of our mother earth and the insurance of a stable and sustainable future for the upcoming generations. …… diunduh 7/3/2012

14 Specified Recovered Fuel or Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF)
Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is a kind of fuel that is produced from municipal solid waste or MSW. It is also known as Specified Recovered Fuel or Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) which is derived from the process it originated. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is made up of domestic or residual trash after the recoverable materials had been collected separately. The main process in producing RDF is thru shredding and dehydrating or burning the solid waste materials. The waste materials included are mainly plastics and biodegradable trash. These waste materials are treated and processed to have a product that consists of high calorific value. RDF dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar langsung sendirian , atau dicampur dengan bahan bakar lainnya. Beneficiation of RDF The use of mechanical screening to produce a very high-quality RDF in terms of a reasonably high heating value, a low moisture content, and a low ash content . …… diunduh 7/3/2012

15 Teknologi Produksi RDF
REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL RDF is produced by processing MSW to increase the fuel value of the waste. The processing removes incombustible materials such as dirt, glass, metals, and very wet organics, and it makes RDF more consistent in size than raw MSW. RDF can be burned for fuel by itself or cofired with other fuels. In addition, the data presented in this section cover only new facilities. Emissions and energy balances for older facilities might differ from those presented here. Teknologi Produksi RDF Typical Processes. All RDF processes typically begin with shredding MSW to a finer size; many then separate the fuel fraction from the residue. In plants where no additional preparation is included, the operation is called a "shred-and-burn" RDF facility. Frequently, however, the separated fuel fraction is further processed to recover metals and sometimes glass. The normal sequence of RDF preparation is shredding, air classifying/screening, magnetic separation, and sometimes eddy current separation for nonferrous metal recovery. Many variations of the process have been developed, each of which has certain advantages. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is a fuel produced by shredding municipal solid waste (MSW). Once the non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are removed the RDF material consists largely of organic, plastic and biodegradable waste. The residual material can be sold in its processed form or it may be compressed into pellets, bricks or logs and used for other purposes either stand-alone or in a recursive recycling process. RDF …… diunduh 7/3/2012

16 http://comp-any.com/company/index.php?id=56 …… diunduh 7/3/2012
BIO-DRYING Biological Drying: Increasing the Calorific Value of Organic Combustibles …… diunduh 7/3/2012

17 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel …… diunduh 7/3/2012
BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient carbon fixation, they are not considered biofuels by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time. Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies. Bahan bakar hayati semakin penting terkait dengan masalah-masalah: Harga minyak yang mahal Keamanan energi Emisi gas rumah kaca, Subsidi minyak …… diunduh 7/3/2012

18 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel …… diunduh 7/3/2012
BIO ETHANOL Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation. Biomasa Selulosik Biomasa lignin fermentasi Bio-etanol The principle fuel used as a petrol substitute for road transport vehicles is bioethanol. Bioethanol fuel is mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it can also be manufactured by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam. The main sources of sugar required to produce ethanol come from fuel or energy crops. These crops are grown specifically for energy use and include corn, maize and wheat crops, waste straw, willow and popular trees, sawdust, reed canary grass, cord grasses, jerusalem artichoke, myscanthus and sorghum plants. There is also ongoing research and development into the use of municipal solid wastes to produce ethanol fuel. (http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/02-03/biofuels/what_bioethanol.htm) Bioethanol itu apa? …… diunduh 7/3/2012

19 Hielscher - Ultrasound Technology
BIODIESEL Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Hielscher - Ultrasound Technology Basically, making biodiesel from oil, methanol (or ethanol) and catalyst, is a simple chemical process. The problem lies in the chemical reaction kinetics. The conventional transesterification of the triglycerides to fatty methyl esters (FAME) and glycerin is slow and not complete. During the conversion process not all fatty acid chains are turned into alkyl esters (biodiesel). This reduces your biodiesel quality and yield, significantly. diunduh 7/3/2012

20 BIODIESEL Spesifikasi biodiesel tergantung pada minyak nabati yang digunakan sebagai bahan baku dan kondisi operasi pabrik serta modifikasi dari peralatan yang digunakan. Biodiesel sebagai bahan bakar motor diesel dapat dikatakan layak karena angka cetannya minimal 47, sedangkan minyak diesel angka cetan sekitar 50. Apabila angka biodiesel terlalu dapat merusak motor (TEKNOLOGI PROSES PRODUKSI BIODIESEL, Martini Rahayu. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

21 Blok Diagram Proses Biodiesel
PRODUKSI BIODIESEL Blok Diagram Proses Biodiesel (TEKNOLOGI PROSES PRODUKSI BIODIESEL, Martini Rahayu. Teknologi proses biodiesel yang umum digunakan pada skala komersial yaitu transesterifikasi antara minyak nabati dan metanol menggunakan katalis basa NaOH atau KOH. Sebaiknya digunakan minyak nabati dalam hal ini CPO yang kadar asam lemak bebas (ALB)-nya rendah (< 1%). Apabila ALB lebih, maka perlu dilakukan pretreatment karena dapat mengakibatkan efisiensi proses rendah. diunduh 18/3/2012

22 Reaksi Transesterifikasi Triolein
In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol. These reactions are often catalyzed by the addition of an acid or base catalyst. The reaction can also be accomplished with the help of enzymes (biocatalysts) particularly lipases (E.C ). Strong acids catalyse the reaction by donating a proton to the carbonyl group, thus making it a more potent electrophile, whereas bases catalyse the reaction by removing a proton from the alcohol, thus making it more nucleophilic. Transesterification: alcohol + ester → different alcohol + different ester Reaksi Transesterifikasi Triolein Apabila triolein dalam minyak nabati beraksi dengan methanol akan menghasilkan 3 molekul methil oleat inilah yang disebut sebagai biodiesel dan satu molekul gliserol (TEKNOLOGI PROSES PRODUKSI BIODIESEL, Martini Rahayu. . …… diunduh 7/3/2012

23 USDE: The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)
PRODUKSI BIODIESEL Produksi biodiesel adalah proses memproduksi biofuel, biodiesel, baik melalui transesterifikasi atau alkoholisis. Ini melibatkan reaksi minyak nabati atau lemak hewan SECARA katalisis dengan alkohol alifatik rantai pendek (biasanya metanol atau etanol). USDE: The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) Biodiesel can be produced using a variety of esterification technologies. The oils and fats are filtered and preprocessed to remove water and contaminants. If free fatty acids are present, they can be removed or transformed into biodiesel using special pretreatment technologies. The pretreated oils and fats are then mixed with an alcohol (usually methanol) and a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide). The oil molecules (triglycerides) are broken apart and reformed into methyl esters and glycerin, which are then separated from each other and purified. Roughly speaking, 100 pounds of oil or fat are reacted with 10 pounds of a short-chain alcohol (usually methanol) with a catalyst to form 100 pounds of biodiesel and 10 pounds of glycerin. diunduh 7/3/2012

24 TAHAPAN SITENSIS BIODIESEL Pemurnian Produk
The major steps required to synthesize biodiesel are as follows: Feedstock pretreatment If waste vegetable oil (WVO) is used, it is filtered to remove dirt, charred food, and other non-oil material often found. Water is removed because its presence causes the triglycerides to hydrolyze, giving salts of the fatty acids (soaps) instead of undergoing transesterification to give biodiesel. Determination and treatment of free fatty acids A sample of the cleaned feedstock oil is titrated with a standardized base solution in order to determine the concentration of free fatty acids (carboxylic acids) present in the waste vegetable oil sample. These acids are then either esterified into biodiesel, esterified into bound glycerides, or removed, typically through neutralization. Reactions While adding the base, a slight excess is factored in to provide the catalyst for the transesterification. The calculated quantity of base (usually sodium hydroxide) is added slowly to the alcohol and it is stirred until it dissolves. Sufficient alcohol is added to make up three full equivalents of the triglyceride, and an excess of usually six parts alcohol to one part triglyceride is added to drive the reaction to completion. Pemurnian Produk Produk reaksi tidak hanya mencakup biodiesel, tetapi juga produk sampingan, sabun, gliserin, alkohol berlebih, dan sedikit air. Semua produk sampingan tersebut harus dihilangkan, meskipun urutan penghilangannya tergantung pada proses. Kepadatan gliserin lebih besar daripada biodiesel, dan perbedaan sifat ini dimanfaatkan untuk memisahkan produk sampingan gliserin. Sisa metanol biasanya dikeluarkan melalui penyulingan dan digunakan kembali, meskipun dapat dicuci (dengan air) sebagai limbah. Sabun dapat diambilatau diubah menjadi asam. Sisa air harus dikeluarkan dari bahan bakar. …… diunduh 7/3/2012

25 REAKSI TRANS-ESTERIFIKASI
Triglycerides (1) are reacted with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Animal and plant fats and oils are typically made of triglycerides which are esters containing three free fatty acids and the trihydric alcohol, glycerol. In the transesterification process, the alcohol is deprotonated with a base to make it a stronger nucleophile. Commonly, ethanol or methanol are used. As can be seen, the reaction has no other inputs than the triglyceride and the alcohol. Normally, this reaction will proceed either exceedingly slowly or not at all. Heat, as well as an acid or base are used to help the reaction proceed more quickly. It is important to note that the acid or base are not consumed by the transesterification reaction, thus they are not reactants but catalysts. Almost all biodiesel is produced from virgin vegetable oils using the base-catalyzed technique as it is the most economical process for treating virgin vegetable oils, requiring only low temperatures and pressures and producing over 98% conversion yield (provided the starting oil is low in moisture and free fatty acids). However, biodiesel produced from other sources or by other methods may require acid catalysis which is much slower. Since it is the predominant method for commercial-scale production, only the base-catalyzed transesterification process will be described below.

26 REAKSI TRANS-ESTERIFIKASI
Biodiesel dapat dibuat dengan proses esterifikasi jika minyak nabati yang digunakan mengandung asam lemak bebas tinggi. Asam lemak bebas dan alkohol dapat dikonversi menjadi ester (biodiesel) dan air dengan katalis asam sesuai reaksi : RCOOH + CH3OH RCOOCH3 + H2O Asam lemak Metanol Metil ester Air Adapun mekanisme reaksinya adalah Reaktor, Vol. 12 No. 1, Juni 2008, Hal KAJIAN AWAL PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK DEDAK PADI DENGAN PROSES ESTERIFIKASI (Aprilina Purbasari dan Silviana. 2008). An example of the transesterification reaction equation, shown in skeletal formulas: …… diunduh 7/3/2012

27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production …… diunduh 7/3/2012
REAKSI ESTERIFIKASI Since natural oils are typically used in this process, the alkyl groups of the triglyceride are not necessarily the same. Therefore, distinguishing these different alkyl groups, we have a more accurate depiction of the reaction: R1, R2, R3 : Alkyl group. Esterification is a reversible reaction. Esters undergo hydrolysis under acid and basic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the reaction is the reverse reaction of the Fischer esterification. Under basic conditions, hydroxide acts as a nucleophile, while an alkoxide is the leaving group. This reaction, saponification, is the basis of soap making. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ester) …… diunduh 7/3/2012

28 KATALISATOR PROSES ESTERIFIKASI
During the esterification process, the triglyceride is reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, usually a strong alkali (NaOH, KOH, or Alkoxides). The main reason for doing a titration to produce biodiesel, is to find out how much alkaline is needed to completely neutralize any free fatty acids present, thus ensuring a complete transesterification. Empirically 6.25 g / L NaOH produces a very usable fuel. One uses about 6 g NaOH when the WVO is light in colour and about 7 g NaOH when it is dark in colour. Alkohol bereaksi dengan asam lemak untuk membentuk ester mono-alkil (atau biodiesel) dan gliserol mentah. Reaksi antara biolipid (lemak atau minyak) dan alkohol adalah reaksi reversibel sehingga alkohol harus ditambahkan berlebih untuk mendorong reaksi ke arah kanan dan memastikan konversinya lengkap. …… diunduh 7/3/2012

29 Base-catalysed transesterification mechanism
The transesterification reaction is base catalyzed. Any strong base capable of deprotonating the alcohol will do (e.g. NaOH, KOH, Sodium methoxide, etc.). Commonly the base (KOH, NaOH) is dissolved in the alcohol to make a convenient method of dispersing the otherwise solid catalyst into the oil. The ROH needs to be very dry. Any water in the process promotes the saponification reaction, thereby producing salts of fatty acids (soaps) and consuming the base, and thus inhibits the transesterification reaction. Once the alcohol mixture is made, it is added to the triglyceride. The reaction that follows replaces the alkyl group on the triglyceride in a series of steps. Karbon pada ester dari trigliserida memiliki muatan positif, dan oksigen karbonil memiliki muatan negatif. Polarisasi dari ikatan C = O inilah yang menarik RO- ke situs reaksi. Ini menghasilkan tetrahedral intermedier yang memiliki muatan negatif pada oksigen karbonil …… diunduh 7/3/2012

30 ENERGI DARI SAMPAH DOMESTIK
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) contains organic as well as inorganic matter. The latent energy present in its organic fraction can be recovered for gainful utilisation through adoption of suitable Waste Processing and Treatment technologies. The recovery of energy from wastes also offers a few additional benefits as follows: The total quantity of waste gets reduced by nearly 60% to over 90%, depending upon the waste composition and the adopted technology; Demand for land, which is already scarce in cities, for landfilling is reduced; The cost of transportation of waste to far-away landfill sites also gets reduced proportionately; and Net reduction in environmental pollution. Oleh karena itu, logis bahwa, segala upaya harus dilakukan untuk meminimalkan produksi limbah dan mendaur ulang & menggunakan kembali limbah itu sebanyak mungkin, pilihan recovery Energi dari Limbah juga harus dipertimbangkan. Kalau memungkinkan, pilihan ini harus dimasukkan dalam skema Pengelolaan Sampah. diunduh 8/3/2012

31 BASIC TECHNIQUES OF ENERGY RECOVERY
Energy can be recovered from the organic fraction of waste (biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable) basically through two methods as follows: Thermo-chemical conversion : This process entails thermal de-composition of organic matter to produce either heat energy or fuel oil or gas; and Bio-chemical conversion: This process is based on enzymatic decomposition of organic matter by microbial action to produce methane gas or alcohol. The Thermo-chemical conversion processes are useful for wastes containing high percentage of organic non-biodegradable matter and low moisture content. The main technological options under this category include Incineration and Pyrolysis/ Gasification. The bio-chemical conversion processes are preferred for wastes having high percentage of organic bio-degradable (putrescible) matter and high level of moisture/ water content, which aids microbial activity. The main technological options under this category is Anaerobic Digestion (Biomethanation). Methanogenesis (bacteria) The microbial formation of methane, which is confined to anaerobic habitats where occurs the production of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, formic acid, methanol, methylamines, or acetate—the major substrates used by methanogenic microbes (methanogens). In fresh-water or marine sediments, in the intestinal tracts of animals, or in habitats engineered by humans such as sewage sludge or biomass digesters, these substrates are the products of anaerobic bacterial metabolism. Methanogens are terminal organisms in the anaerobic microbial food chain—the final product, methane, being poorly soluble, anaerobically inert, and not in equilibrium with the reaction which produces it. (http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Biomethanation) BIOMETHANASI diunduh 8/3/2012

32 PARAMETERS AFFECTING ENERGY RECOVERY
The main parameters which determine the potential of Recovery of Energy from Wastes (including MSW), are: · Quantity of waste, and · Physical and chemical characteristics (quality) of the waste. The actual production of energy will depend upon specific treatment process employed, the selection of which is also critically dependent upon (apart from certain other factors described below) the above two parameters. Accurate information on the same, including % variations thereof with time (daily/ seasonal) is, therefore, of utmost importance. The important physical parameters requiring consideration include: Size of constituents Density Moisture content Smaller size of the constituents aids in faster decomposition of the waste. Wastes of the high density reflect a high proportion of biodegradable organic matter and moisture. Low density wastes, on the other hand, indicate a high proportion of paper, plastics and other combustibles. High moisture content causes biodegradable waste fractions to decompose more rapidly than in dry conditions. It also makes the waste rather unsuitable for thermo-chemical conversion (incineration, pyrolysis/ gasification) for energy recovery as heat must first be supplied to remove moisture.

33 PARAMETERS AFFECTING ENERGY RECOVERY What is Calorific Value?
The important chemical parameters to be considered for determining the energy recovery potential and the suitability of waste treatment through biochemical or thermo-chemical conversion technologies include: - Volatile Solids Fixed Carbon content Inerts, Calorific Value C/N ratio (Carbon/Nitrogen ratio) Toxicity The desirable range of important waste parameters for technical viability of energy recovery through different treatment routes is given in the Table The parameter values indicated therein only denote the desirable requirements for adoption of particular waste treatment method and do not necessarily pertain to wastes generated / collected and delivered at the waste treatment facility. In most cases the waste may need to be suitably segregated/ processed/ mixed with suitable additives at site before actual treatment to make it more compatible with the specific treatment method. This has to be assessed and ensured before hand. For example, in case of Anaerobic digestion, if the C/N ratio is less, high carbon content wastes (straw, paper etc.) may be added; if it is high, high nitrogen content wastes (sewage sludge, slaughter house waste etc.) may be added, to bring the C/N ratio within the desirable range. What is Calorific Value? Calorific value (CV) is a measure of heating power and is dependent upon the composition of the gas. The CV refers to the amount of energy released when a known volume of gas is completely combusted under specified conditions. The CV of gas, which is dry, gross and measured at standard conditions of temperature and pressure, is usually quoted in megajoules per cubic metre (MJ/m3). Gas passing through the National Grid pipeline system has a CV of 37.5 MJ/m3 to 43.0 MJ/m3, with the exception of Stornoway which receives liquid petroleum gas. (http://www.nationalgrid.com/uk/Gas/Data/misc/reports/description/) diunduh 8/3/2012

34 Desirable range of important waste parameters for technical
viability of energy recovery: “Methanogens are the only living organisms that produce methane as a way of life. The biochemistry of their metabolism is unique and definitively delineates the group. Two reductive biochemical strategies are employed: an eight-electron reduction of carbon dioxide to methane or a two-electron reduction of a methyl group to methane. All methogens form methane by reducing a methyl group. The major energy-yielding reactions used by methanogens utilize substrates such as hydrogen, formic acid, methanol, acetic acid, and methylamine. Dimethyl sulfide, carbon monoxide, and alcohols such as ethanol and propanol are substrates that are used less frequently “ (http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Biomethanation). METHANOGENS diunduh 8/3/2012

35 ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL
A rough assessment of the potential of recovery of energy from MSW through different treatment methods can be made from a knowledge of its calorific value and organic fraction, as under: In thermo-chemical conversion all of the organic matter, biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable, contributes to the energy output : Total waste quantity : W tonnes Net Calorific Value : NCV k-cal/kg. Energy recovery potential (kWh) = NCV x W x 1000/860 = 1.16 x NCV x W Power generation potential (kW) = 1.16 x NCV x W/ 24 = x NCV x W Conversion Efficiency = 25% Net power generation potential (kW) = x NCV x W If NCV = 1200 k-cal/kg., then Net power generation potential (kW) = 14.4 x W diunduh 8/3/2012

36 KONVERSI BIOKIMIA Calorific value.
In bio-chemical conversion, only the biodegradable fraction of the organic matter can contribute to the energy output : In general, 100 tonnes of raw MSW with 50-60% organic matter can generate about Mega Watt power, depending upon the waste characteristics. Calorific value. The calories or thermal units contained in one unit of a substance and released when the substance is burned. Calorific value : the quantity of heat produced by the complete combustion of a given mass of a fuel, usually expressed in joules per kilogram (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/calorific+value) diunduh 8/3/2012

37 TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS Anaerobic Digestion (AD)
There are various technological options which can be employed for recovery of energy from MSW (Fig. 15.1). While some of these have already been applied at a large scale, some others are under advanced stages of development. A brief on these technologies is given below. Anaerobic Digestion (AD) In this process, also referred to as bio-methanation, the organic fraction of wastes is segregated and fed to a closed container (biogas digester) where, under anaerobic conditions, the organic wastes undergo bio-degradation producing methane-rich biogas and effluent/ sludge. The biogas production ranges from m3/tonne of wastes, depending upon the composition of waste. The biogas can be utilised either for cooking/ heating applications, or through dual fuel or gas engines or gas / steam turbines for generating motive power or electricity. The sludge from anaerobic digestion, after stabilisation, can be used as a soil conditioner, or even sold as manure depending upon its composition, which is determined mainly by the composition of the input waste. Fundamentally, the anaerobic digestion process can be divided into three stages with three distinct physiological groups of micro-organisms: Stage I: It involves the fermentative bacteria, which include anaerobic and facultative micro-organisms. Complex organic materials, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are hydrolyzed and fermented into fatty acids, alcohol, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia and sulfides. Stage II: In this stage the acetogenic bacteria consume these primary products and produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid. Stage III: It utilizes two distinct types of methanogenic bacteria. The first reduces carbon dioxide to methane, and the second decarboxylates acetic acid to methane and carbon dioxide. diunduh 8/3/2012

38 http://urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/chap15.pdf…… diunduh 8/3/2012
PROSES ANAEROBIK Factors, which influence the Anaerobic Digestion process, are temperature, pH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration), nutrient concentration, loading rate, toxic compounds and mixing. For start-up a good innoculum such as digested sludge is required. A temperature of about 35-38oC is generally considered optimal in mesophilic zone (20-45oC) and higher gas production can be obtained under thermophillic temperature in the range of 45-60oC. Provision of appropriate heating arrangements and insulation may become necessary in some parts of the country. Anaerobic Digestion (AD) of MSW offers certain clear advantages over the option of Aerobic process, in terms of energy production/ consumption, compost quality and net environmental gains: AD process results in net production of energy. The quality of the digested sludge (compost) is better as Nitrogen is not lost by oxidation. Its totally enclosed system prevents escape of polluted air to atmosphere. The net environmental gains are positive. diunduh 8/3/2012

39 MAIN STEPS IN ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF MSW
Pre-treatment: to remove inerts and non-biodegradable materials, upgrade and homogenise the feedstock for digestion and to promote downstream treatment processes. Anaerobic Digestion: and to produce biogas for energy to de-odorise, stabilise and disinfect the feedstock. Post-Treatment: to complete the stabilisation of the digested material and to produce a refined product of suitable moisture content, particle size and physical structure for the proposed end-use as organic manure. Effluent Treatment: to treat the liquid effluent to specified standards before final disposal. diunduh 8/3/2012

40 Different Designs and Configurations of AD Systems
Different designs and configurations of AD systems have been developed by various companies to suit different total solid concentration in the feed and microbial activity i.e. single phase, bi-phasic, multi-phasic. The more popular ones are broadly categorised as low/ medium and high solids, two phase and leach bed systems. (i) Low / Medium Solid Digestion Systems: A large number of systems presently available worldwide for digestion of solid wastes are for low (< 10%) or medium (10-16%) solid concentrations. Some of these systems, when applied to MSW or Market Waste, require the use of water, sewage sludge or manure. (ii) High Solid Continuous Digestion Systems: These systems have been developed since the late eighties principally for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste but have also been extended to other industrial, market and agricultural wastes. The digestion occurs at solid content of 16% to 40%. These systems are referred to as ‘Dry Digestion’ or Anaerobic Composting when the solid concentration is in the range of 25-40% and free water content is low. Systems in this category vary widely in design and include both completely mixed and plug-flow systems. (iii) Two Stage Digestion Systems: In these systems the hydrolysis, acidogenesis and acetogenesis of the waste are carried out separately from the methanogenesis stage. Since each step is optimised separately, so that each of the reactions (i.e. acidogenesis, methanogenesis, etc.) is operated closer to its optimum, the rate of digestion is significantly increased. However, requirement of two reactors and more process controls may lead to higher capital costs and system complications. diunduh 8/3/2012

41 (iv) Dry Batch Digestion/ Leach Bed Process
This design concept is closest to the processes occurring naturally in a landfill. The reactor containing the organic material is inoculated with previously digested waste from another reactor, sealed and allowed to digest naturally. The leachate from the bottom of the reactor is re-circulated and heated, if required, to promote the degradation process. In Leach Bed systems also referred to as SEBAC systems (Sequential Batch Anaerobic Composting) this leachate is treated in a wastewater digester prior to recirculation, and thus the solid phase digester essentially acts like a hydrolysis / acid forming stage of a two phase system. This approach has the distinct advantage of reduced materials handling but overall degradation of the organic matter can be lower than other systems. A great deal of experience with biomethanation systems already exists in India, but a large part of this is related to farm-scale biogas plants and industrial effluents. There is little experience in the treatment of solid organic waste, except sewage sludge and animal manure. However, several schemes for bio-methanationof MSW and Vegetable Market Yard Wastes, are currently planned for some cities of the country . diunduh 8/3/2012

42 REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL (RDF) BASED POWER PLANTS:
In an RDF plant, waste is processed before burning. Typically, the noncombustible items are removed, separating glass and metals for recycling. The combustible waste is shredded into a smaller, more uniform particle size for burning. The RDF thus produced may be burned in boilers on-site, or it may be shipped to off-site boilers for energy conversion. If the RDF is to be used off-site, it is usually densified into pellets through the process of pelletisation. Pelletisation involves segregation of the incoming waste into high and low calorific value materials and shredding them separately, to nearly uniform size. The different heaps of the shredded waste are then mixed together in suitable proportion and then solidified to produce RDF pellets. The calorific value of RDF pellets can be around 4000 kcal/ kg depending upon the percentage of organic matter in the waste, additives and binder materials used in the process, if any. Since pelletisation enriches the organic content of the waste through removal of inorganic materials and moisture, it can be very effective method for preparing an enriched fuel feed for other thermo-chemical processes like Pyrolysis/ Gasification, apart from Incineration. Additional advantage is that the pellets can be conveniently stored and transported. RDF plants involve significantly more sorting and handling than Mass Burn facilities and therefore provide greater opportunity to remove environmentally harmful materials from the incoming waste prior to combustion. However, it is not possible to remove the harmful materials completely. Several years ago RDF was used mainly along with coal fired boilers but now, because of the stricter restrictions w.r.t. air emissions, it is usually burned in dedicated boilers designed and built specially for the RDF. In case of RDF Pellets too, it needs to be ensured that the pellets are not burned indiscriminately or in the open, but only in dedicated Incineration facilities or other well designed combustion systems, having all the necessary pollution control systems. diunduh 8/3/2012

43 Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production
PROSES ANAEROBIK Schematic diagram of complete anaerobic digestion of complex polymers. Names in brackets indicate the enzymes excreted by hydrolytic bacteria. Numbers indicate the bacterial groups involved: 1. Fermentative bacteria 2. Hydrogenproducing acetogenic bacteria 3. Hydrogenconsuming acetogenic bacteria 4. Aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria 5. Carbon dioxidereducing methanogenic bacteria Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production Satoto Endar Nayono. 2009…… diunduh 8/3/2012

44 Bagasse Calorific Value
LIMBAH UNTUK ENERGI Schematic diagram of a “waste to energy” concept which is applied in the city of Karlsruhe Bagasse Calorific Value Gross calorific value, also known as the higher calorific value (HCV) of bagasse, is calculated from the following formula: HCV=[ ,05(moisture % sample) - 196,05(ash % sample) - 31,14(brix % sample)]kJ.kg-1 The net calorific value, also known as the lower calorific value (LCV), assumes that the water formed by combustion and also the water of constitution of the fuel remains in vapour form. In industrial practice it is not practicable to reduce the temperature of the combustion products below dew point to condense the moisture present and recover its latent heat, thus the latent heat of the vapour is not available for heating purposes and must be subtracted from the HCV. By ASTM standards the HCV is calculated at atmospheric pressure and at 20°C. LCV of bagasse is calculated by the formula: LCV=[ ,6 (moisture % sample) - 196,05 (ash % sample) - 31,14 (brix % sample)] kJ.kg-1 (http://www.sugartech.co.za/extraction/bagasseCV/index.php) diunduh 8/3/2012

45 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Anaerobic digestion is described as a series of processes involving microorganisms to break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The overall result of anaerobic digestion is a nearly complete conversion of the biodegradable organic material into methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and new bacterial biomass (Veeken ., 2000; Kelleher , 2002; Gallert and Winter, 2005). Buswell (1952 as cited in Gallert and Winter, 2005) proposed a generic formula describing the overall chemical reaction of the anaerobic fermentation process of organic compounds which can be used for the prediction of biogas production: In the anaerobic digestion process different types of bacteria degrade the organic matter successively in a multistep process and parallel reactions. The anaerobic digestion process of complex organic polymers is commonly divided into three inter related steps: hydrolysis, fermentation (also known as acidogenesis), ßoxidation (acetogenesis) and methanogenesis which are schematically illustrated in figure (Stronach ., 1986; Pavlosthatis and Giraldo Gomez, 1991). diunduh 8/3/2012

46 TEMPERATURE Temperature is one of the major important parameters in anaerobic digestion. It determines the rate of anaerobic degradation processes particularly the rates of hydrolysis and methanogenesis. Moreover, it not only influences the metabolic activities of the microbial population but also has a significant effect on some other factors such as gas transfer rates and settling characteristics of biosolids (Stronach ., 1986 and Metcalf & Eddy Inc., 2003). Anaerobic digestion commonly applies two optimal temperature ranges: mesophilic with optimum temperature around 35°C and thermophilic with optimum temperature around 55°C (MataAlvarez, 2002). Influence of temperature on the rate of anaerobic digestion process. Optimum temperature for mesophilic around 30 – 40 °C and for thermophilic 50 – 60 °C (Source: MataAlvarez, 2002)…… diunduh 7/3/2012

47 Site Navigation: Home » Car Notes » Running Your Car Or Truck Unconventionally Using Sustainable Energy Sources Running Your Car Or Truck Unconventionally Using Sustainable Energy Sources September 9th, 2011 by Cars Centre SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Sustainable energy is the sustainable provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Technologies that promote sustainable energy include renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity, solar energy, wind energy, wave power, geothermal energy, and tidal power, and also technologies designed to improve energy efficiency. Sustainable energy Sources People are constantly keeping an eye out for new sources of fuel because of the constantly high price of gasoline. Drivers are generally upset that they pay more every time they fill at the gas pump. Sumber: …… diunduh 7/3/2012

48 EFISIENSI ENERGI Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable energy. Some ways in which sustainable energy has been defined are: "Effectively, the provision of energy such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. ...Sustainable Energy has two key components: renewable energy and energy efficiency." – Renewable Energy and Efficiency Partnership (British) "Dynamic harmony between equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations." And, "the solution will lie in finding sustainable energy sources and more efficient means of converting and utilizing energy." – Sustainable energy by J. W. Tester, et al., from MIT Press. "Any energy generation, efficiency & conservation source where: Resources are available to enable massive scaling to become a significant portion of energy generation, long term, preferably 100 years.." – Invest, a green technology non-profit organization. "Energy which is replenishable within a human lifetime and causes no long-term damage to the environment." – Jamaica Sustainable Development Network This sets sustainable energy apart from other renewable energy terminology such as alternative energy and green energy, by focusing on the ability of an energy source to continue providing energy. Sustainable energy can produce some pollution of the environment, as long as it is not sufficient to prohibit heavy use of the source for an indefinite amount of time. Sustainable energy is also distinct from Low-carbon energy, which is sustainable only in the sense that it does not add to the CO2 in the atmosphere. Green Energy is energy that can be extracted, generated, and/or consumed without any significant negative impact to the environment. The planet has a natural capability to recover which means pollution that does not go beyond that capability can still be termed green. Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines green power as electricity produced from solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, biomass, and low-impact small hydroelectric sources. Customers often buy green power for avoided environmental impacts and its greenhouse gas reduction benefits.

49 TEKNOLOGI ENERGI TERBARUKAN
Renewable energy technologies are essential contributors to sustainable energy as they generally contribute to world energy security, reducing dependence on fossil fuel resources, and providing opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. The International Energy Agency states that: Conceptually, one can define three generations of renewables technologies, reaching back more than 100 years . First-generation technologies emerged from the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include hydropower, biomass combustion, and geothermal power and heat. Some of these technologies are still in widespread use. Second-generation technologies include solar heating and cooling, wind power, modern forms of bioenergy, and solar photovoltaics. These are now entering markets as a result of research, development and demonstration (RD&D) investments since the 1980s. The initial investment was prompted by energy security concerns linked to the oil crises (1973 and 1979) of the 1970s but the continuing appeal of these renewables is due, at least in part, to environmental benefits. Many of the technologies reflect significant advancements in materials. Third-generation technologies are still under development and include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, concentrating solar thermal power, hot dry rock geothermal energy, and ocean energy. Advances in nanotechnology may also play a major role. —International Energy Agency, RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ENERGY SUPPLY, An IEA Fact Sheet First- and second-generation technologies have entered the markets, and third-generation technologies heavily depend on long term research and development commitments, where the public sector has a role to play. A 2008 comprehensive cost-benefit analysis review of energy solutions in the context of global warming and other issues ranked wind power combined with battery electric vehicles (BEV) as the most efficient, followed by concentrated solar power, geothermal power, tidal power, photovoltaic, wave power, coal capture and storage, nuclear energy, and finally biofuels. …… diunduh 7/3/2012

50 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Moving towards energy sustainability will require changes not only in the way energy is supplied, but in the way it is used, and reducing the amount of energy required to deliver various goods or services is essential. Opportunities for improvement on the demand side of the energy equation are as rich and diverse as those on the supply side, and often offer significant economic benefits. Renewable energy and energy efficiency are sometimes said to be the “twin pillars” of sustainable energy policy. Both resources must be developed in order to stabilize and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Efficiency slows down energy demand growth so that rising clean energy supplies can make deep cuts in fossil fuel use. If energy use grows too fast, renewable energy development will chase a receding target. Likewise, unless clean energy supplies come online rapidly, slowing demand growth will only begin to reduce total emissions; reducing the carbon content of energy sources is also needed. Any serious vision of a sustainable energy economy thus requires commitments to both renewables and efficiency. Renewable energy (and energy efficiency) are no longer niche sectors that are promoted only by governments and environmentalists. The increased levels of investment and the fact that much of the capital is coming from more conventional financial actors suggest that sustainable energy options are now becoming mainstream. Climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices and increasing government support are driving increasing rates of investment in the sustainable energy industries, according to a trend analysis from the United Nations Environment Programme.

51 ENERGI HIJAU = Green energy
Green energy includes natural energetic processes that can be harnessed with little pollution. Anaerobic digestion, geothermal power, wind power, small-scale hydropower, solar energy, biomass power, tidal power, wave power, and some forms of nuclear power (which is able to "burn" nuclear waste through a process known as nuclear transmutation, and therefore belong in the "Green Energy" category). Some definitions may also include power derived from the incineration of waste. The goal of green energy is generally to create power with as little pollution as possible produced as a by-product. Every form of energy collection will result in some pollution, but those that are green are known to cause less than those that are not. Most people who advocate greener sources of energy claim that the result of worldwide use of green energy will result in the ability to preserve the planet for a longer time. Greenhouse gases, a by-product of traditional sources of energy such as fossil fuels are thought to be causing global warming, or the process of the Earth heating up at an accelerated pace. …… diunduh 7/3/2012

52 http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-green-energy.htm…… diunduh 7/3/2012
ENERGI HIJAU Some people, including George Monbiot and James Lovelock have specifically classified nuclear power as green energy (Lovelock, James , The Revenge of Gaia. Reprinted Penguin, 2007). Others, including Greenpeace disagree, claiming that the problems associated with radioactive waste and the risk of nuclear accidents (such as the Chernobyl disaster) pose an unacceptable risk to the environment and to humanity. However, newer nuclear reactor designs are capable of utilizing what is now deemed "nuclear waste" until it is no longer (or dramatically less) dangerous, and have design features that greatly minimize the possibility of a nuclear accident. Green energy is energy that is produced in a manner that has less of a negative impact to the environment than energy sources like fossil fuels, which are often produced with harmful side effects. “Greener” types of energy that often come to mind are solar, wind, geothermal and hydro energy. There are several more, even including nuclear energy, that is sometimes considered a green energy source because of its lower waste output relative to energy sources such as coal or oil. diunduh 7/3/2012

53 GREEN ELECTRICITY …… diunduh 7/3/2012
In several countries with common carrier arrangements, electricity retailing arrangements make it possible for consumers to purchase green electricity (renewable electricity) from either their utility or a green power provider. When energy is purchased from the electricity network, the power reaching the consumer will not necessarily be generated from green energy sources. The local utility company, electric company, or state power pool buys their electricity from electricity producers who may be generating from fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable energy sources. In many countries green energy currently provides a very small amount of electricity, generally contributing less than 2 to 5% to the overall pool. In some U.S. states, local governments have formed regional power purchasing pools using Community Choice Aggregation and Solar Bonds to achieve a 51% renewable mix or higher, such as in the City of San Francisco (San Francisco Community Choice Program Design, Draft Implementation Plan and H Bond Action Plan, Ordinance , 2007). …… diunduh 7/3/2012

54 The Green Energy Future
GREEN ENERGI Green energy consumers either obligate the utility companies to increase the amount of green energy that they purchase from the pool (so decreasing the amount of non-green energy they purchase), or directly fund the green energy through a green power provider. If insufficient green energy sources are available, the utility must develop new ones or contract with a third party energy supplier to provide green energy, causing more to be built. However, there is no way the consumer can check whether or not the electricity bought is "green" or otherwise. The Green Energy Future Green Energy means producing renewable energy and fuels, and a lot more. Saving energy through good decision-making. Reducing waste by capturing energy value from by-products. Generating valuable by-products. Contributing to Ontario's energy supplies in an environmentally sustainable manner. Creating rural economic development opportunities and partnerships. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Efisiensi energi merupakan titik-awal dari “energi Hijau”. Petani, pengolah pangan, pedagang dan pemukim dapat mereduksi penggunaan energinya dnegan jalan memperbaiki lampu penerangan, motor, ventilation, pemanas ruangan, peralatan dan insulation, serta menerapkan teknologi konservasi energi yang tersedia. diunduh 7/3/2012

55 GREEN ENERGY Farm fields are natural energy collectors. Energy is captured from the soil, sun, wind and water: Soil and sun combine to produce energy crops and biomass for fuel. Sun and wind present energy opportunities to harvest power. Water is also an energy resource in the form of untapped streams that flow through farms. Dams can be used to tap this resource. Farms and food processors can be more than energy collectors; they can produce energy in marketable products such as switchgrass pellets, biodiesel, ethanol and electricity. Green Energy Opportunities - Energy efficiency, producing renewable energy, production opportunities across the province, economic development opportunities, waste recycling and using renewable energy by-products. SUMBER: diunduh 7/3/2012

56 Production of electricity from solar energy
LISTRIK ENERGI SURYA The World Wide Fund for Nature and several green electricity labelling organizations have created the Eugene Green Energy Standard under which the national green electricity certification schemes can be accredited to ensure that the purchase of green energy leads to the provision of additional new green energy resources (Eugene Green Energy Standard, Eugene Network. Retrieved ) Production of electricity from solar energy Heating the coolant directly with solar rays turns water into steam, which then turns the turbo-alternator to produce electricity. Sumber: diunduh 17/3/2012

57 http://www.repp.org/bioenergy/index.html …… diunduh 8/3/2012
Bioenergy  Bioenergy is stored energy from the sun contained in materials such as plant matter and animal waste, known as biomass. Biomass is considered renewable because it is replenished more quickly when compared to the millions of years required to replenish fossil fuels. The wide variety of biomass fuel sources includes agricultural residue, pulp/paper mill residue, urban wood waste, forest residue, energy crops, landfill methane, and animal waste. Biomass is any organic matter, particularly cellulosic or lingo-cellulosic matter, which is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including trees, plants and associated residues; plant fiber; animal wastes; industrial waste; and the paper component of municipal solid waste . Plants store solar energy through photosythesis in cellulose and lignin cells. Cellulose is defined as a polymer, or chain, of 6-carbon sugars; lignin is the substance, or “glue,” that holds the cellulose chain together . When burned, these sugars break down and release energy exothermically, giving off CO2, heat and steam. The byproducts of this reaction can be captured and manipulated to create electricity, commonly called biopower, or fuel known as biofuel. (Both short for "biomass power" and "biomass fuel" respectively) . …… diunduh 8/3/2012

58 http://www.repp.org/bioenergy/link1.htm …… diunduh 8/3/2012
SIKLUS KARBON Biomass is considered to be a replenishable resource—it can be replaced fairly quickly without permanently depleting the Earth’s natural resources. By comparison, fossil fuels such as natural gas and coal require millions of years of natural processes to be produced. Therefore, mining coal and natural gas depletes the Earth’s resources for thousands of generations. Alternatively, biomass can easily be grown or collected, utilized and replaced. Courtesy of NASA at …… diunduh 8/3/2012

59 Courtesy of ORNL at http://bioenergy. ornl
In order to curb CO2 emissions, we must take active strides to reduce our emissions. At present, the United States is responsible for 25% of the world's emissions, and is currently dedicated to a policy which actually encourages the release of more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, claiming it to be an indication of economic growth. Burning biomass will not solve the currently unbalanced carbon dioxide problem. However, the contribution that biomass could make to the energy sector is still considerable, since it creates less carbon dioxide than its fossil-fuel counterpart. Conceptually, the carbon dioxide produced by biomass when it is burned will be sequestered evenly by plants growing to replace the fuel. In other words, it is a closed cycle which results in net zero impact (see diagram below). Thus, energy derived from biomass does not have the negative environmental impact associated with non-renewable energy sources. …… diunduh 8/3/2012

60 ENERGI BIOMASA Energy from Biomass
Biomass is an attractive energy source for a number of reasons. First, it is a renewable energy source as long as we manage vegetation appropriately. Biomass is also more evenly distributed over the earth's surface than finite energy sources, and may be exploited using less capital-intensive technologies. It provides the opportunity for local, regional, and national energy self-sufficiency across the globe. It provides an alternative to fossil fuels, and helps to reduce climate change. It helps local farmers who may be struggling and provides rural job opportunites. Energy from Biomass Farmers and food processors produce or manage large volumes of energy-rich organic materials, which can be further processed to obtain usable forms of energy. There are several ways farmers and other businesses can tap into the energy potential found in biomass. Production of New Energy Crops Ontario farmers can grow new energy crops such as switchgrass and specialized corn silage for anaerobic digesters, depending on the location and type of operation they have. These crops may fit into existing rotations and may be harvested by available equipment. Local Value-added Opportunities Energy crops or agriculture and food biomass can be processed locally before shipping. Local pelletizing of switchgrass or crop residues can produce a value-added product that can be easily transported for use in other markets. On-site Production of Energy Renewable energy systems can produce energy in the following ways: Anaerobic Digesters produce biogas by using manure and other organic inputs (such as energy crops and food processing by-products). Biogas can be used as a replacement for natural gas to produce heat, electricity and/or transportation fuel. Biomass Combustion Systems that burn energy crops, crop residues, wood and other cellulosic inputs produce heat, power or bio-oils with very low emissions. The heat can be sold locally to another business, farm or community. diunduh 8/3/2012

61 KONVERSI ENERGI BIOMASA
Bioenergy conversion requires a comparison with other energy sources that are displaced by the bioenergy. Thus, biomass for power must be compared to coal, natural gas, nuclear, and other power sources including other renewables. While comprehensive data is not available, one study by REPP shows that emissions from biomass plants burning waste wood would release far less sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) than coal plants built after 1975. The comparison with combined cycle natural gas power plants is more ambiguous, since biomass releases far more sulfur dioxide, similar levels or greater levels of nitrogen oxide, but far less carbon dioxide than combined cycle natural gas plants. There are five fundamental forms of biomass energy use. the "traditional domestic" use in developing countries (fuelwood, charcoal and agricultural residues) for household cooking (e.g. the "three stone fire"), lighting and space-heating. In this role-the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to useful energy generally lies between 5% and 15%. the "traditional industrial" use of biomass for the processing of tobacco, tea, pig iron, bricks & tiles, etc, where the biomass feedstock is often regarded as a "free" energy source. There is generally little incentive to use the biomass efficiently so conversion of the feedstock to useful energy commonly occurs at an efficiency of 15% or less. "Modern industrial." Industries are experimenting with technologically advanced thermal conversion technologies which are itemised below. Expected conversion efficiencies are between 30 and 55%. newer "chemical conversion" technologies ("fuel cell") which are capable of by-passing the entropy-dictated Carnot limit which describes the maximum theoretical conversion efficiencies of thermal units. "biological conversion" techniques, including anaerobic digestion for biogas production and fermentation for alcohol diunduh 18/3/2012

62 Producing Biofuels from Renewable Sources
TYPES OF BIOMASS  Domestic biomass resources include biomass processing residues including pulp and paper operation, agricultural and forestry wastes, urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes and landfill gas, animal wastes and terrestrial and aquatic crops grown solely for energy purposes, known as energy crops. In large quantities, the biomass source is called a feedstock. Making use of the waste is more productive than allowing it to sit and decompose on its own, which is sometimes even more hazaradous to the surrounding environment. Below is a more detailed description of each of these types. Producing Biofuels from Renewable Sources Like biomass energy systems, solid and liquid biofuels production from crops can reduce reliance on fossil fuels. Unlike fossil fuels, biofuels are considered "carbon neutral" because no net carbon is introduced into the atmosphere through their use (i.e. they capture the same amount of carbon dioxide in their growth as utilizing them creates). Local biofuels production could also increase rural economic development. Fuel Types include: Grain Ethanol: Ethanol for fuel is mostly created from fermented corn. Cellulosic Ethanol: Cellulosic ethanol will be produced from high-volume specialized crops (e.g. switchgrass), crop residues and other forms of organic matter. Biodiesel: Biodiesel can be created from a variety of agricultural materials, including canola and soybeans, and from food processing by-products. Raw Biomass: Heat and electricity can be produced by burning grains, crop residues or dedicated energy crops in burners or boilers. Pelletized Biomass: Switchgrass and other high-growth crops can be harvested and pelletized for ease of transportation, storage and use as a solid biofuel, primarily in heating systems. Biogas: Refined biogas can directly replace natural gas. …… diunduh 8/3/2012

63 There are four main supply chains of forest residues
BIOMASS PROCESSING RESIDUES. All processing of biomass yields byproducts and waste streams collectively called residues, which have significant energy potential. Not all residues can be used for electricity generation, some must be used to replenish the source with nutrients or elements. Still, residues are simple to use because they have already been collected. Forest residues, which includes wood from forest thinning operations that reduce forest fire risk, biomass not harvested or removed from logging sites in commercial hardwood and softwood stands as well as material resulting from forest management operations such as pre-commercial thinnings and removal of dead and dying trees. There are four main supply chains of forest residues Recovery of forest residues Forest residues consist of small trees, branches, tops and un-merchantable wood left in the forest after the cleaning, thinning or final felling of forest stands, used as fuel without any intermittent applications. Three main sources of forest residues can be distinguished: slash from final fellings, slash and small trees from thinnings and cleanings, and un-merchantable wood. In Sweden for example, slash from final fellings constitutes the largest share (over 71% in 1996 and even more dominating in 2003). Terrain chipping Chipping at a landing (generally roadside chipping) Terminal chipping Chipping at plant. (sumber: diunduh 17/3/2012 …… diunduh 8/3/2012

64 BIOMASA SISA PANEN TANAMAN
Agricultural or Crop Residues are the leftovers of harvesting. They can be collected with conventional harvesting equipment while harvesting the primary crop or afterwards into pellets, chips, stacks or bales . Agriculture crop residues include corn stover (stalks and leaves), wheat straw, rice straw and processing residues such as nut hulls. With approximately 80 million acres of corn planted annually, corn stover is expected to become a major biomass resource for bioenergy applications . In some areas, especially dry climates, the residues must be left to replenish the soil with nutrients for the next season and can not be completely utilized . The soil can not take out all the nutrients from the residues, which translates to rotting and wasted energy sitting on top of the fields. Forest chips harvesting methods integrated into wood raw material harvesting ( Source: Alakangas, VTT) diunduh 8/3/2012

65 http://www.fao.org/docrep/T1804E/t1804e06.htm…… diunduh 18/3/2012
LIMBAH TERNAK Animal waste, such as cattle, chicken and pig manure, can be converted to gas or burned directly for heat and power generation. In the developing world, dung cakes are used as a fuel for cooking . Furthermore, most animal wastes contain high levels of methane. Thus, this method is very unsafe, as the levels of harmful chemicals given off by the biomass is hazardous to the health of users, causing 1.6 million deaths annually in the developing nations . Since, animal wastes farms and animal processing operations create large amounts of animal wastes that constitute a complex source of organic materials with environmental consequences, utilizing the manure to produce energy properly lowers the environmental and health impacts. These wastes can be used to make many products and generate electricity through methane recovery methods and anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic reactors are generally used for the production of methane rich biogas from manure (human and animal) and crop residues. They utilise mixed methanogenic bacterial cultures which are characterised by defined optimal temperature ranges for growth. These mixed cultures allow digesters to be operated over a wide temperature range i.e. above 0°C up to 60°C. diunduh 18/3/2012

66 LIMBAH DOMESTIK Municipal Solid Waste. Residential, commercial, and institutional post-consumer wastes contain a significant proportion of plant derived organic material that constitute a renewable energy resource. Waste paper, cardboard, wood waste and yard wastes are examples of biomass resources in municipal wastes. The International Energy Agency (IEA) is conducting research on municipal wastes and their use in creating bioenergy. BIOGAS Generally biogas refers to a gas, which is produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. And biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. diunduh 17/3/2012

67 TANAMAN ENERGI Energy crops are bioengineered to be fast-growing plants, trees or other herbaceous biomass which are harvested specifically for energy production use. These crops can be grown, cut and replaced quickly. For a complete list of potential plants which may be used as energy crops, please see the Handbook of Energy Crops. Herbaceous Energy Crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking two to three years to reach full productivity. These include grasses such as switchgrass, miscanthus (Elephant grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. These crops are generally grown for fuel production. Woody Energy Crops Short-rotation woody crops are fast growing hardwood trees harvested within five to eight years after planting. These include hybrid poplar (seen below), hybrid willow, silver maple, eastern cottonwood, green ash, black walnut, sweetgum, and sycamore. …… diunduh 8/3/2012

68 Industrial Crops Industrial crops are being developed and grown to produce specific industrial chemicals or materials. Examples include kenaf and straws for fiber, and castor for ricinoleic acid. New transgenic crops are being developed that produce the desired chemicals as part of the plant composition, requiring only extraction and purification of the product. Agricultural Crops These feedstocks include the currently available commodity products such as cornstarch and corn oil; soybean oil and meal; wheat starch, other vegetable oils, and any newly developed component of future commodity crops. They generally yield sugars, oils, and extractives, although they can also be used to produce plastics and other chemicals and products. Aquatic Crops A wide variety of aquatic biomass resources exist such as algae, giant kelp, other seaweed, and marine microflora. Commercial examples include giant kelp extracts for thickeners and food additives, algal dyes, and novel biocatalysts for use in bioprocessing under extreme environments . …… diunduh 8/3/2012

69 http://www.biofuelindonesia.com/about.html …… diunduh 8/3/2012
BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI Biofuel is a renewable energy source that are produced from recently living organisms or their byproducts. The term itself is most commonly used to refer to liquid biofuels. They are fuels developed from specifically grown agricultural products. Before World War II, biofuels were seen as providing an alternative to imported oil in European countries. After the war, cheap Middle Eastern oil lessened interest in biofuels. But since the 21st century, rising oil prices, concerns over the potential oil peak, global warming, and instability in the Middle East are pushing renewed interest in biofuels. Indonesia's rich biodiversity and vast potential for development of the bioenergy utilization, together with the integrated strategy and incentives for investment developed by the government, favorably position the country to maximise the promise of sustainable long-term returns from the biofuel economy. …… diunduh 8/3/2012

70 http://www.biofuelindonesia.com/about.html …… diunduh 8/3/2012
ASAL-USUL BIOFUEL The most common types of biofuel are originated from specifically grown agricultural products. This include: - Corn and Soybeans, primarily in the United States; - Flaxseed and Rapeseed, primarily in Europe; - Sugar Cane in Brazil; - Palm Oil in South-East Asia; - Jatropha Curcas, primarily in India. Biofuel can also come from biodegradable outputs from industry, agriculture, forestry and households. This include straw, timber, manure, rice husks, sewage, biodegradable waste, and food leftovers. They are converted to biogas through anaerobic digestion. Biomass used as fuel often consists of underutilized types, like chaff and animal waste. Indonesia is currently focusing on developing Liquid Biofuel derived from Jatropha Curcas, Palm Oil, and Sugar Cane. Vegetable oil is used in several old diesel engines that have indirect injection systems. This oil is also used to create biodiesel, which when mixed with conventional diesel fuel is compatible for most diesel engines. Used vegetable oil is converted into biodiesel. Sometimes, water and particulates are separated from the used vegetable oil and then this is used as a fuel. Biodiesel is a famous biofuel in Europe. Its composition is just like mineral diesel. When biodiesel is mixed with mineral diesel, the mixture can be used in any diesel engine. It is observed that in several nations, the diesel engines under warranty are converted to 100% biodiesel use. It has also been proved that most people can run their vehicles on biodiesel without any problem. Bioalcohols are biologically produced alcohols. Common among these are ethanol and rare among these are propanol and butanol. Biobutanol can be used directly in a gasoline engine and hence is considered a direct replacement for gasoline. The butanol can be burned straight in the existing gasoline engines without any alteration to the engine or car. It is also claimed that this butanol produces more energy. Also, butanol has a less corrosive effect and is less soluble in water than ethanol. Ethanol fuel is the most commonly used biofuel in the world and particularly in Brazil. Ethanol can be put to use in petrol engines as a substitute for gasoline. Also, it can be mixed with gasoline in any ratio. The contemporary automobile petrol engines can work on mixtures of gasoline and ethanol that have 15% bioethanol. This mixture of gasoline and ethanol has more quantity of octane. (http://biofuel.org.uk/types-of-biofuel.html) …… diunduh 8/3/2012

71 Biodiesel & Green Diesel
Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced locally, thus helping to reduce Indonesia's dependence on imported crude. The processed biodiesel fuel is derived from Palm Oil, Jatropha Curcas, Coconut Oil, or Soybean Oil. Biodiesel can be readily used in diesel-engine vehicles either as a substitue for Diesel, or as an additive. It provides power similar to that produced by conventional diesel fuel. Bioethanol Bioethanol comes from anhydrous alcohol produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, cassava, or corn. Green Diesel is a blend of Plantation Oil and Crude Oil, processed in an oil refinery without adding methanol. The processed bioethanol fuel can be utilized for transportation vehicles as an additive to fuel, up to 15% of total composition without the need for any special equipment. Pure Plant Oil (PPO) & Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) Pure Plant Oil and Straight Vegetable Oil are those that has not undergone chemical change from its original characteristics. Palm Oil, Straight Jatropha Oil (SJO) and Soybean Oil can all be used as an additive for Diesel fuel (15% PPO, 85% Diesel) without needing any special equipment. However, with the use of convertor, PPO can be used to purely replace Diesel fuel (up to 100% of the composition), resulting in discontinue need for Diesel fuel. PPO can also be used to replace Kerosene (20% PPO, 80% Diesel) and Marine Fuel Oil (up to 100% PPO without special equipment). …… diunduh 8/3/2012

72 TANAMAN ENERGI Bio-Fuel menjadi primadona dengan kemasan yang ramah lingkungan. Walaupun ada juga pihak yang menentang BioFuel dengan alasan akan adanya pertarungan antara Food untuk manusia dan Food untuk Kendaraan bermotor dan Industri. Apa komoditi dan bahan baku utama Bio-Fuel? Ada 4 bahan baku utama yang saat ini digunakan: Palm: atau juga dikenal dengan Kelapa Sawit Jatropa Curcas: atau Jarak Pagar Sugar cane: atau tanaman Tebu Cassave: atau Ubi Kayu diunduh 8/3/2012

73 PRODUK DARI BIO-FUEL Bio-Ethanol: digunakan sebagai pengganti BBM (Gasoline) pada transportasi, dengan target 10%. Bahan bakunya adalah dari Sugar cane (Tanaman Tebu) dan Cassava (Ubi Kayu). Bio-Diesel: akan menjadi pengganti Bahan Bakar Diesel (Solar) yang akan digunakan untuk Transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant (50%). Bahan Bakunya adalah dari Kelapa Sawit dan jarak Pagar. Bio-Oil mempunyai 3 turunan yaitu: Bio-Kerosin: sebagai pengganti Minyak Tanah di rumah tangga (10%) dengan berbahan baku Kelapa Sawit dan Jarak Pagar Bio-Oil: sebagai pengganti Automotive Diesel Oil (ADO) untuk transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant (10-50%), dan Bio-Oil sebagai pengganti Industry Diesel Oil (IDO) untuk Transportasi Laut dan Kereta Api (10%), juga bahan baku yang sama dengan Bio-Kerosin. Bio-Oil: sebagai pengganti Minyak Bakar (Fuel Oil) untuk Industry sebanyak 50%. Bahan baku nya adalah Kelapa Sawit dan Jarak Pagar. Bio-Diesel: sebagai pengganti Bahan Bakar Solar pada Transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant (50%). Bahan bakunya adalah Kelapa Sawit dan Jarak Pagar. diunduh 8/3/2012

74 TARGET PENGEMBANGAN BIOFUEL
Pemerintah Indonesia sendiri, dalam kerangka pengembangan BIOFUEL ini, ini mempunyai target untuk tahun 2010 sebagai berikut: Menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan bagi 3.5 juta orang Meningkatkan pendapatan petani minimal menyamai UMR Mengembangkan tananaman bahan Biofuel di 5.5 juta hektar tanah Terbentuknya 1000 Daerah yang-Self-Sufficient-Energy (DESA MANDIRI) dan 12 daerah khusus BIOFUEL Mengurangi ketergantungan akan Fossil Fuel paling tidak 10% Menghemat Valuta Asing sampai US$10 Milliar Memenuhi kebutuhan BIOFUEL dalam enegri dan eksport. Biodiesel Biodiesel is created through mixture of an organic oil, most commonly vegetable oil, and an alcohol. This process of converting oils to biodiesel is known as transesterification. While plant-based oil is the most common ingredient in biodiesel, other types of oils can be used such as animal fat or algae. Biodiesel is a substance very similar to diesel however modern diesel engines cannot use it readily as an energy source without slight modifications to the engine. The biodiesel available at gas stations is mixture of 5% biodiesel and 95% ordinary diesel fuel. However, more biodiesel friendly vehicles are being produced, chief amongst them are railway cars which can run on up to a 20% biodiesel mixture. Some hobbyists also convert diesel to complete biodiesel powered vehicles. The only problem with biodiesel is the fact that, while bioalcohols use any biomass to produce energy, biodiesel must be produced from oil rich crops, which require large amounts of fertile land. This is a problem as it increases the costs of biodiesel and uses land that could have been used for food production or other purposes. (http://renewableenergyindex.com/renewable-energy-sources/biological-energy/types-of-biofuels)

75 BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI = BIOFUEL
Bahan bakar hayati atau biofuel adalah setiap bahan bakar baik padatan, cairan ataupun gas yang dihasilkan dari bahan-bahan organik. Biofuel dapat dihasilkan secara langsung dari tanaman atau secara tidak langsung dari limbah industri, komersial, domestik atau pertanian. Ada tiga cara untuk pembuatan biofuel: pembakaran limbah organik kering (seperti buangan rumah tangga, limbah industri dan pertanian); fermentasi limbah basah (seperti kotoran hewan) tanpa oksigen untuk menghasilkan biogas (mengandung hingga 60 persen metana), atau fermentasi tebu atau jagung untuk menghasilkan alkohol dan ester; dan energi dari hutan (menghasilkan kayu dari tanaman yang cepat tumbuh sebagai bahan bakar). Proses fermentasi menghasilkan dua tipe biofuel: alkohol dan ester. Bahan-bahan ini secara teori dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan bahan bakar fosil tetapi karena kadang-kadang diperlukan perubahan besar pada mesin, biofuel biasanya dicampur dengan bahan bakar fosil. Uni Eropa merencanakan 5,75 persen etanol yang dihasilkan dari gandum, bit, kentang atau jagung ditambahkan pada bahan bakar fosil pada tahun 2010 dan 20 persen pada Sekitar seperempat bahan bakar transportasi di Brazil tahun 2002 adalah etanol. Biofuel menawarkan kemungkinan memproduksi energi tanpa meningkatkan kadar karbon di atmosfer karena berbagai tanaman yang digunakan untuk memproduksi biofuel mengurangi kadar karbondioksida di atmosfer, tidak seperti bahan bakar fosil yang mengembalikan karbon yang tersimpan di bawah permukaan tanah selama jutaan tahun ke udara. Dengan begitu biofuel lebih bersifat carbon neutral dan sedikit meningkatkan konsentrasi gas-gas rumah kaca di atmosfer (meski timbul keraguan apakah keuntungan ini bisa dicapai di dalam prakteknya). Penggunaan biofuel mengurangi pula ketergantungan pada minyak bumi serta meningkatkan keamanan energi. Ada dua strategi umum untuk memproduksi biofuel. Strategi pertama adalah menanam tanaman yang mengandung gula (tebu, bit gula, dan sorgum manis) atau tanaman yang mengandung pati/polisakarida (jagung), lalu menggunakan fermentasi ragi untuk memproduksi etil alkohol. Strategi kedua adalah menanam berbagai tanaman yang kadar minyak sayur/nabatinya tinggi seperti kelapa sawit, kedelai, alga, atau jarak-pagar. Saat dipanaskan, maka keviskositasan minyak nabati akan berkurang dan bisa langsung dibakar di dalam mesin diesel, atau minyak nabati bisa diproses secara kimia untuk menghasilkan bahan bakar seperti biodiesel. Kayu dan produk-produk sampingannya bisa dikonversi menjadi biofuel seperti gas kayu, metanol atau bahan bakar etanol. …… diunduh 8/3/2012

76 http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel…… diunduh 8/3/2012
BIODIESEL Biodiesel merupakan biofuel yang paling umum di Eropa. Biodiesel diproduksi dari minyak atau lemak menggunakan transesterifikasi dan merupakan cairan yang komposisinya mirip dengan diesel mineral. Nama kimianya adalah methyl asam lemak (atau ethyl) ester (FAME). Minyak dicampur dengan sodium hidroksida dan methanol (atau ethanol_ dan reaksi kimia menghasilkan biodiesel (FAME) dan glycerol. Satu bagian glycerol dihasilkan untuk setiap 10 bagian biodiesel. Biodiesel dapat digunakan di setiap mesin diesel kalau dicampur dengan diesel mineral. Di beberapa negara produsen memberikan garansi untuk penggunaan 100% biodiesel. Kebanyakan produsen kendaraan membatasi rekomendasi mereka untuk penggunaan biodiesel sebanyak 15% yang dicampur dengan diesel mineral. Di Eropa, campuran biodiesel 5% sudah banyak digunakan secara luas dan tersedia di stasiun bahan bakar umum. Di USA, lebih dari 80% truk komersial dan bis kota beroperasi menggunakan diesel. Oleh karena itu penggunaan biodiesel AS bertumbuh cepat dari sekitar 25 juta galon per tahun pada 2004 menjadi 78 juta galon pada awal Pada akhir 2006, produksi biodiesel diperkirakan meningkat empat kali lipat menjadi 1 milyar galon. diunduh 8/3/2012

77 BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI - FOTOSINTESIS
Pentingnya fotosintesis dalam produksi bio-fuel. diunduh 8/3/2012

78 FOTOSINTESIS PENTING DALAM PRODUKSI BIO-FUEL
Fotosintesis memainkan peran sentral dalam proses produksi bio-fuel karena merupakan langkah pertama dalam konversi energi surya (cahaya) menjadi energi kimia dan OLEH karenanya bertanggung jawab untuk mendorong produksi stok pakan yang diperlukan untuk sintesis bahan bakar: proton & elektron (untuk bio-H2), gula & pati (untuk bio-etanol), minyak (untuk bio-diesel) dan biomassa (untuk BTL & bio-metana). Consequently, any increase in photosynthetic efficiency will enhance the competitiveness of bio-fuel production in general. In higher plants and green algae, light is captured by specialised Light Harvesting Complex proteins, referred to here as LHCI and LHCII, which confer the ability to adapt to changing light levels. The excitation energy is then funnelled to the photosynthetic reaction centres of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). PSII uses this energy to drive the photosynthetic water splitting reaction, which converts water into protons, electrons and oxygen. The electrons are passed along the photosynthetic electron transport chain via plastoquinone (PQ), cytochrome b6f (Cyt b6f), photosystem I (PSI), and ferredoxin (Fd) and on to NADPH. Simultaneously, protons are released into the thylakoid lumen by PSII and the PQ/PQH2 cycle. This generates a proton gradient, which drives ATP production via ATP synthase. The protons and electrons are recombined by ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) to produce NADPH. NADPH and ATP are used in the Calvin cycle and other biochemical pathways to produce the sugars, starch, oils and other bio-molecules (which collectively form biomass) that are required to produce bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, bio-methane- and BTL-based bio-fuels. Alternatively in some photosynthetic micro-organisms like the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the protons and electrons extracted from water (or starch) can be fed to the hydrogenase (HydA) via the electron transport chain to drive the direct production of bio-H2 diunduh 8/3/2012

79 Algae is the third and latest generation biofuel and so it has an integral role to play in the future of biofuels. It earned that distinction by being environmentally friendly (biodegradable) and more effective than the alternatives (30X more energy per acre as compared to Soybeans). Third generation was preceded by second generation biofuels (attractiveness comes from its use of non food material such as wheat stalks and wood) and first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). The ethanol used in first generation biofuels is produced through fermentation of sugars extracted from plants (sugar extracting methods can be applied to almost any kind starch-based material). Drawback of first generation's bioethanol: gas powered vehicles can only run on a mixture of at most 15% bioethanol. A biofuel is by definition renewable material since the matter within it must be at least 80% renewable. Algenol's Algae-to-Ethanol Delivers 67% to 87% Reduction in CO2 Michael Graham Richard Technology / Clean Technology October 25, 2010 SUMBER: diunduh 8/3/2012

80 THE BENEFITS OF MAKING ETHANOL FROM ALGAE
Algae have many important advantages over other oil-producing crops, like corn, canola and soybeans. It can be grown in almost any enclosed space and it multiplies rapidly and requires very few inputs to flourish - mainly just sunlight, water and carbon dioxide. "Because algae has a high surface-area-to-volume ratio, it can absorb nutrients very quickly, and its small size is what makes it mighty." The EROI - Energy Returned is much higher than Energy Invested or required to produce algae ethanol. diunduh 17/3/2012

81 BIODIESEL FROM ALGAE Problems with Biodiesel from Algae Not enough CO2 in the atmosphere to produce enough Temperature of water needs to be right on Open ponds and algae become choked with invasive species Very Expensive Benefits of using algae · In the right conditions, algae can double its volume overnight · Unlike other biofuel products, algae can be harvested day after day · Up to 50% of an alga’s body weight is made of oil = more fuel · Algae is expected to produce 10,000 gallons per acre per year · Algae can double its volume overnight · Algae can grow in brackish water like the water that’s in the desert in the southwest · Algae can be grown using land and water unsuitable for plant or food production, unlike some other first- and second-generation biofuel feedstocks. · Select species of algae produce bio-oils through the natural process of photosynthesis. Growing algae consume carbon dioxide; this provides greenhouse gas mitigation benefits. · Bio-oil produced by photosynthetic algae and the resultant biofuel will have molecular structures that are similar to the petroleum and refined products we use today. · Algae have the potential to yield greater volumes of biofuel per acre of production than other biofuel sources. Algae could yield more than 2000 gallons of fuel per acre per year of production. Approximate yields for other fuel sources are far lower: - Palm — 650 gallons per acre per year - Sugar cane — 450 gallons per acre per year - Corn — 250 gallons per acre per year - Soy — 50 gallons per acre per year Algae used to produce biofuels are highly productive. As a result, large quantities of algae can be grown quickly, and the process of testing different strains of algae for their fuel-making potential can proceed more rapidly than for other crops with longer life cycles. If successful, bio-oils from photosynthetic algae could be used to manufacture a full range of fuels including gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel that meet the same specifications as today’s products. https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas…… diunduh 15/3/2012

82 ALGAE FOR BIODIESEL AND ETHANOL
GreenFuel Technologies Corporation that is based in Cambridge, Massachusetts is based upon cultivating and producing algae that can produce high numbers of biodiesel and ethanol. Not having enough CO2 in the atmosphere was going to be a problem for us to face with Algae biofuel production but there is a solution. This solution could also be a solution for preventing all the output of harmful stuff into the atmosphere that is destroying the ozone. What would make algae production cheaper and more efficient is putting it next to a big factory. These factories let off CO2 and gases into the atmosphere. The CO2 let off from these factories would sometimes go up and stay in the atmosphere and be harmful to the ozone and our atmospheric protection. Being beneficial to the environment and needing a lot of CO2, the factories could channel their output into the algae plant. Having this is very efficient since it both gets factory discharge and produces energy for us. CO2 digunakan dalam memproduksi energi ini menyebabkan outputnya menjadi lebih sedikit CO2 terutama dari pabrik-pabrik, dibandingkan dnegan sumber energi terbarukan lainnya. Ganggang tumbuh lebih cepat dengan semua CO2 yang berasal dari cerobong pabrik. Produksi Ganggang ini dikatakan menyebabkan penurunan jumlah CO2 atmosfir sebesar 40% , berarti lebih sedikit emisi oksida-nitrous dari pabrik-pabrik. https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas…… diunduh 15/3/2012

83 ALGAE untuk BIODIESEL & ETHANOL
GreenFuel Technologies Corporation that is based in Cambridge, Massachusetts is based upon cultivating and producing algae that can produce high numbers of biodiesel and ethanol. Bioalcohols The main bioalcohol fuels used today are ethanol and to a lesser extent methanol. Methanol is the simpler and less energy-rich fuel of the two. It is most commonly produced by gasification of biomass into a hydro-carbon rich gas called “syngas” from which methanol is then obtained. While the process itself is not costly nor complicated, it is only suitable for large scale production due to the large quantities of biomass needed. Methanol has approximately half the energy content of gasoline while at the same time costing much, much less and producing about 20% less toxic emissions. Ethanol is more energy rich when compared to methanol although it is still slightly less energy rich than gasoline itself. The most popular method of production of ethanol is simple fermentation of sugar. Sugar can come from a number of crops depending on the geographical location. Currently, the gasoline used in many countries around the world contains up to 10% of ethanol to offset the price. Ethanol is particularly popular in Brazil where many cars have a so called “Flex” engine which can be run on pure ethanol or gasoline or a mixture of both. (http://renewableenergyindex.com/renewable-energy-sources/biological-energy/types-of-biofuels) https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas…… diunduh 15/3/2012

84 ALGAE untuk BIODIESEL & ETHANOL
Five resources are required to turn algae into fuel: sunlight, brackish or salt water, desert or other marginal land, carbon dioxide and algae. We have plenty of all five and too much of one — carbon dioxide. But through photosynthesis, we can take carbon dioxide pollution out of the atmosphere and convert it into algae-based gasoline and fuel Algae had a lot going for it as a potential source of biodiesel: When exposed to sunlight, algae rapidly reproduce and photosynthesize, converting carbon dioxide into sugar. The sugar is metabolized into lipids, or oil. The oil is then mixed with alcohol, such as ethanol, to produce biodiesel. Additionally, certain strains of algae naturally produce as much as 60 percent of their biomass as oil, while others are powerfully resistant to extreme heat, salinity or acidity. https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas…… diunduh 15/3/2012

85 Sumber: http://climatelab.org/Biofuels ...... diunduh 10/3/2012
BIO-ALCOHOLS Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, and colorless alcohol derived from sugars and starches in biomass such as sorghum, wheat, rice, or yard clippings; in the United States it is typically made from corn. Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in varying concentrations, usually to be used in gasoline engines. E10, which contains 10% ethanol and 90% unleaded gasoline, can be used in almost all conventional gasoline engines and is covered under warranty by every major U.S. automobile manufacturer. E85, or 85% ethanol, is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. This blend can only be used in E85-capable flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), which are available in a variety of models from U.S. and foreign automakers. Ethanol produces fewer emissions of CO2 and benzene than gasoline, but its emissions and energy balance vary based on feedstock. According to the EPA corn-based ethanol generates about 30 percent more energy than the fossil fuel energy used to produce it, and over its life cycle reduces petroleum use more than 90% over gasoline.3 Still, other ethanol feedstocks may offer significant environmental benefits over corn. For example the World Bank estimates that sugarcane biodiesel produced in Brazil reduces gasoline emissions by about 90 percent, whereas US corn ethanol lowers gas emissions by percent. Biobutanol can be produced from any type of biomass. It offers advantages over ethanol as it has a higher energy density, can be blended with gas in any concentration to be used in conventional gasoline engines, and can be transported through existing pipeline infrastructure. While biobutanol has not been produced successfully on a large scale the technology has received significant investment, specifically through a joint venture being undertaken by the DuPont corporation and British Petroleum (BP). Cellulosic ethanol has the same chemical composition as first-generation ethanol but is based from the cellulose and hemicelluloses in woody fibers. Cellulosic technology has strong appeal since cellulose presents a ubiquitous and renewable resource, but it is not yet in wide use.

86 Life Cycle of Medium to Large Scale, Agri-based Biofuels
Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a tool used to account for inputs and outputs to complex systems. In essence, it is a budgeting process that accounts for all inputs (raw materials and energy) and outputs (products, waste materials, and environmental impacting components such as CO2). Some effective models have been developed for life cycle analysis, including these for biodiesel. Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis accounts for inputs and outputs associated with feedstock production through to biofuel end use. Setting appropriate system boundaries can be challenging. U.S. Dept. of Energy Biomass Program diunduh 17/3/2012

87 http://climatelab.org/Biofuels…… diunduh 8/3/2012
BIO OILS: BIODIESEL Biodiesel is a cleaner-burning alternative to petroleum diesel that can be produced from virtually any fat or vegetable oil. Through a chemical process called transesterification, heavy glycerol molecules are swapped with a lighter alcohol (most often methanol) under very high temperatures, which lightens the fuel so that it runs through any ignition-compression vehicle without modifications to the engine. Pure biodiesel (B100) can be blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. In the United States biodiesel has traditionally been made from soybeans, but animal fats and other agri-crops such as rapeseed, flax and canola have become increasingly common. In countries across Central and South America, Asia and Africa, biodiesel may also be produced from Jatropha oil from the Jatropha Csucas tree.  Biodiesel tersedia secara luas di banyak negara Eropa dalam bentuk B100, namun karena sebagian besar adalah mandat negara , bahan ini paling banyak dijual di Amerika Serikat sebagai B2 (2% biodiesel) atau B5 (5% biodiesel ). Biodiesel harus mematuhi standar yang ketat (ASTM D7651) agar dapat dijual untuk digunakan di jalan raya di Amerika Serikat. diunduh 8/3/2012

88 BIO OILS: VEGETABLE OIL
Straight vegetable oil, including "virgin" oils or recycled oils, can be converted into biodiesel or used in diesel engines that have undergone a conversion process. The conversion creates a second tank intended for vegetable oil, while the first tank holds diesel or biodiesel fuel. The driver starts the car drawing fuel from the first tank, then switches to the second tank when the engine has heated and the oil has sufficiently thinned. Algal biofuel can be derived from aquatic plants raised in open ponds or incubating units. Algae produces vastly more oil per acre than traditional feedstocks; the limiting factor is actually access to carbon dioxide. As a result, current technologies face significant cost limitations. The DOE estimates that algal biofuel produced with currently-available technology would cost over $8 per gallon, while the price of soy biodiesel today hovers around $4 per gallon. It is generally agreed that biodiesel fuel offers a superior emissions profile to standard petroleum diesel. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a vehicle powered by B20 reduces life-cycle petroleum consumption by 19%, carbon dioxide emissions by 16%, and further reduces hydrocarbon emissions by 20%. Higher blends mean even greater emissions reductions. However there have been questions concerning biodiesel's nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, with studies by EPA and NREL showing both higher and lower NOx levels as compared to diesel emissions. diunduh 8/3/2012

89 BIOFUEL FROM SOLIDS AND GASES
Solid Biofuel refers to any type of solid biomass or other matter that can be burned directly, such as wood, agricultural waste, energy crops and biochar. Burning solids releases heat that can be harnessed for energy, as well as liquids and solids that can be used as biofuel.  Biogas can be produced through the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure or sewage. It consists mostly of methane and carbon dioxide mixed with other trace gases, and can be used to generate electricity or compressed for use as a transportation fuel. Biodigesters are often viewed as ideal partners for farms that produce animal waste, as the digester doubles as an energy source and sanitation device. Syngas ("synthetic gas") is produced by heating and compressing any material that contains carbon, such as biomass or coal, and is comprised of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. It can be made into transportation fuels such as methane gas or synthetic diesel fuel, and the ash that is generated as a sidestream can be used as fertilizer. diunduh 8/3/2012

90 ROUNDTABLE ON SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS
The Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) was initiated in 2007 to create a standard for biofuels production and processing that would ensure environmental, social, and economic sustainability, while reducing the impact of biofuels on global climate change. RSB principles and criteria are currently being developed through a consultative, multi-stakeholder process, with public comment periods following the ISEAL best practices. A key provision in the RSB 2008 draft is: Principle 3: Biofuels shall contribute to climate change mitigation by significantly reducing GHG emissions as compared to fossil fuels. Standard methods for measuring the life-cycle GHG impact of biofuels (Life Cycle Analysis, LCA) will be developed under this principle to even the playing field and remove any subjectivity from the process. (RSB 2009)   The RSB recognizes that GHG impacts of biofuels production exist both on the farm, where producers control practices, and off the farm, where market forces may compromise compliance with Principle 3. The current version of the standard focuses on practices that a producer can actually control. Producers are advised on strategies to minimize the risk of iLUC by: Maximizing use of waste and residues as feedstocks; marginal, degraded or previously cleared land; improvements to yields; and efficient crops; International collaboration to prevent detrimental land use changes; and Avoiding the use of land or crops that are likely to induce land conversions resulting in emissions of stored carbon. The RSB also attempts to deal with biological diversity, conservation and expects to include a deforestation cut-off date in the final standard. diunduh 8/3/2012

91 Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties.
Bioresour Technol Aug;102(16): Epub 2011 May 23. Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties. Tambone F, Scaglia B, Scotti S, Adani F. ABSTRACT In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,779±2,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas. …… diunduh 11/3/2012

92 Chemosphere. 2011 Jun;84(3):289-95. Epub 2011 May 7.
PCDD/F enviromental impact from municipal solid waste bio-drying plant. Rada EC, Ragazzi M, Zardi D, Laiti L, Ferrari A. The present work indentifies some environmental and health impacts of a municipal solid waste bio-drying plant taking into account the PCDD/F release into the atmosphere, its concentration at ground level and its deposition. Four scenarios are presented for the process air treatment and management: biofilter or regenerative thermal oxidation treatment, at two different heights. A Gaussian dispersion model, AERMOD, was used in order to model the dispersion and deposition of the PCDD/F emissions into the atmosphere. Considerations on health risk, from different exposure pathways are presented using an original approach. The case of biofilter at ground level resulted the most critical, depending on the low dispersion of the pollutants. Suggestions on technical solutions for the optimization of the impact are presented. …… diunduh 11/3/2012

93 Biostabilization–biodrying of municipal solid waste by inverting air-flow
Mara Sugni, Enrico Calcaterra, Fabrizio Adani. Bioresource Technology Volume 96, Issue 12, August 2005, Pages 1331–1337 ABSTRACT The process of biodrying could be a good solution for municipal solid waste management, allowing the production of fuel with an interesting energy content. Previous work (Adani, F., Baido, D., Calcaterra, E., Genevini, P.L., The influence of biomass temperature on biostabilization–biodrying of municipal solid waste. Bioresource Technology 83 (3), 173–179) has indicated that appropriate management of the processing parameters (air-flow rate and biomass temperatures) could achieve biomass drying in very short times (8–9 days). However, the data of that work also evidenced that if the conditions do not consider pile turning, and the air-flow is always from one direction, temperature gradients arise within the biomass, resulting in a lack of homogeneity in the moisture and energy content of the final product. Therefore, a new laboratory study was conducted on municipal solid waste biodrying–biostabilization in an effort to obtain homogeneous final products. Our proposal to solve this lack of homogeneity is to periodically invert the air-flow direction. Thus, in line with a previous study, two trials, A and B, were carried out, dividing the biomass into three layers to study temperature and moisture gradients throughout the process, and a third trial (C) simulating air-flow inversion at regular intervals was introduced. The results suggest that the daily inversion of air-flow eliminates marked temperature differences and leads to a homogeneous final product. …… diunduh 11/3/2012

94 Drying Technology: An International Journal . Vol 28, Issue 10, 2010
BIODRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek, Paweł Stolarek & Stanislaw Ledakowicz. pages ABSTRACT The effect of air flow rate on the change of biomass (organic waste material) temperature and moisture content during an autothermal drying process is discussed. The laboratory-scale experiments were performed using a 240-dm3 horizontal composting reactor equipped with an air supply system, biomass temperature measuring system, and air humidity and temperature sensors. An organic fraction of municipal solid waste with the addition of a structural material was used as a substrate in this process. As a result of the autothermal biodrying process, the initial moisture content of organic waste ranging from 0.8 to 0.9 kgH2O/kg of raw waste mass decreased by 50%. Water balances were calculated before and after biodrying, and the difference was less than 10%. The heat of combustion and the calorific value of dried wastes ranged respectively from 6,750 to 12,280 kJ/kg and from 8,050 to 10,980 kJ/kg. The biodrying efficiency varied from 0.73 to 0.97, depending on process conditions. Energy balances showed that average biological energy production rates varied between 1.66 and 6.90 W/kg of raw waste mass. …… diunduh 11/3/2012

95 Ling Zhao, Wei-Mei Gu, Pin-Jing He, , Li-Ming Shao
Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge Ling Zhao, Wei-Mei Gu, Pin-Jing He, , Li-Ming Shao Water Research. Vol. 44, Issue 20, December 2010, Pages 6144–6152 Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909 m3 h−1 kg−1) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455 m3 h−1 kg−1) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5 g kg−1 initial water) and 11.5% (75.0 g kg−1 initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was 60.6–72.6% of the total heat consumption (34,400–45,400 kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800 kJ) and 8.96% (3200 kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one. diunduh 11/3/2012

96 Drying Technology: An International Journal . Vol. 24, Issue 7, 2006.
Emerging Biodrying Technology for the Drying of Pulp and Paper Mixed Sludges. Shahram Navaee-Ardeh, François Bertrand & Paul R. Stuart. pages ABSTRACT Effective sludge management is increasingly critical for pulp and paper mills due to high landfill costs and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter that is difficult to dewater. Various drying technologies have emerged to address this challenge of sludge management, whose objective is to increase the dryness of mixed sludge to above critical levels (≈42% dryness) for efficient and economic combustion in the boiler for steam generation. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are reviewed in this article, and it is found that many have significant technical uncertainties and/or questionable economics. A biodrying process, enhanced by biological heat generation under forced aeration, is introduced that has significant promise. A techno-economic analysis of the batch biodrying process at a case study mill showed an annual operating cost savings of about $2 million, including the elimination of landfilling practices and supplemental fuel requirements in the boiler. It was shown that if a biodrying residence time of less than 4 days can be achieved, payback periods of 2 years or less can result in many mills. The potential for the development of a continuous biodrying reactor and the fundamentals of its mathematical modeling are thus presented. Compared to the batch reactor configuration, it is expected that the continuous process would result in improved process flexibility and controllability, lower investment and operating costs due to shorter residence times, and an improved potential to fit into the crowed pulp and paper mill site. diunduh 11/3/2012

97 Dandan Huang; Wenxiong Huang; Ran Yin; Zhiyun Qu; Song Yuan
Influence of turning and air-flow temperature on aerobic bio-drying of MSW . Dandan Huang;   Wenxiong Huang;   Ran Yin;   Zhiyun Qu;   Song Yuan Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on Sept page(s): Taking high moisture-content MSW collected in a mixing way as object, influences of turning and air-flow temperature on bio-drying process were studied using a self-designed experimental equipment. The results showed that turning could further improve bio-drying effect better with intermittent ventilation. When the air-flow temperature is 40°C, the moisture-content of materials could be decreased from 61.6% to 23.7%, after 18d of bio-drying process. And the heat value advanced 198.2%. diunduh 11/3/2012

98 Journal of Environmental Sciences 2010, 22(5) 752–759
Release of volatile organic compounds during bio-drying of municipal solid waste Pinjing He, Jiafu Tang, Dongqing Zhang, Yang Zeng, Liming Shao ABSTRACT Three treatments were tested to investigate the release concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the bio-drying of municipal solid waste (MSW) by the aerobic and combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes. Results showed that VOCs were largely released in the first 4 days of bio-drying and the dominant components were: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, benzene, 2-butanone, limonene and methylene chloride. Thus, the combined hydrolytic-aerobic process was suggested for MSW bio-drying due to fewer aeration quantities in this phase when compared with the aerobic process, and the treatment strategies should base on the key properties of these prominent components. Malodorous sulfur compounds and terpenes were mainly released in the early phase of bio-drying, whereas, two peaks of release concentrations appeared for aromatics and ketones during bio-drying. Notably, for the combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes there were also high concentrations of released aromatics in the shift from hydrolytic to aerobic stages. High concentrations of released chlorinateds were observed in the later phase. For the VOCs produced during MSW bio-drying, i.e., malodorous sulfur compounds, terpenes and chlorinateds, their release concentrations were mainly determined by production rates; for the VOCs presented initially in MSW, such as aromatics, their transfer and transport in MSW mainly determined the release concentrations. diunduh 11/3/2012

99 AUTOTHERMAL BIODRYING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT
Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek;Stanisław Ledakowicz. Chemical Papers. Vol. 64, No.2. p ABSTRACT To carry out autothermal drying processes during the composting of biomass, a horizontal tubular reactor was designed and tested. A biodrying tunnel of the total capacity of 240 dm3 was made of plastic material and insulated with polyurethane foam to prevent heat losses. Municipal solid waste and structural plant material were used as the input substrate. As a result of autothermal drying processes, moisture content decreased by 50 % of the initial moisture content of organic waste of about 800 g kg−1. In the tested cycles, high temperatures of biodried waste mass were achieved (54–56°C). An appropriate quantity of air was supplied to maintain a satisfactory level of temperature and moisture removal in the biodried mass and high energy content in the final product. The heat of combustion of dried waste and its calorific value were determined in a calorimeter. Examinations of pyrolysis and gasification of dried waste confirmed their usefulness as biofuel of satisfactory energy content. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures without the participation of oxygen. It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyr "fire" and lysis "separating". Pyrolysis is a case of thermolysis, and is most commonly used for organic materials, being, therefore, one of the processes involved in charring. The pyrolysis of wood, which starts at 200–300 °C (390–570 °F), occurs for example in fires where solid fuels are burning or when vegetation comes into contact with lava in volcanic eruptions. In general, pyrolysis of organic substances produces gas and liquid products and leaves a solid residue richer in carbon content, char. Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the residue, is called carbonization. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrolysis) diunduh 11/3/2012

100 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ABSTRACT Biodrying is the process by which biodegradable waste is rapidly heated through initial stages of composting to remove moisture from a waste stream and hence reduce its overall weight. In biodrying processes, the drying rates are augmented by biological heat in addition to forced aeration. The major portion of biological heat, naturally available through the aerobic degradation of organic matter, is utilized to evaporate surface and bound water associated with the mixed sludge. This heat generation assists in reducing the moisture content of the biomass without the need for supplementary fossil fuels, and with minimal electricity consumption. It can take as little as 8 days to dry waste in this manner. This enables reduced costs of disposal if landfill is charged on a cost per tonne basis. Biodrying may be used as part of the production process for refuse-derived fuels. Biodrying does not however greatly affect the biodegradability of the waste and hence is not stabilised. Biodried waste will still break down in a landfill to produce landfill gas and hence potentially contribute to climate change. In the UK this waste will still imact upon councils LATS allowances. Whilst biodrying is increasingly applied within commercial mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plants, it is also still subject to on-going research and development.

101 Journal of Environmental Sciences 20(2008) 1534–1540
BIODRYING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE WITH HIGH WATER CONTENT BY COMBINED HYDROLYTIC-AEROBIC TECHNOLOGY ZHANG Dongqing, HE Pinjing, SHAO Liming, JIN Taifeng, HAN Jingyao The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water removal efficiency up to 78.5%. A positive correlation was observed between the organics losses and the water losses in both hydrolytic and aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01). The evolutions of extracellular enzyme activities were shown to be consistent with the organics losses.

102 Biodrying of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes. ABSTRACT
Drying Technology: An International Journal Volume 28, Issue 10, 2010 Biodrying of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes. Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek, Paweł Stolarek & Stanislaw Ledakowicz. p ABSTRACT The effect of air flow rate on the change of biomass (organic waste material) temperature and moisture content during an autothermal drying process is discussed. The laboratory-scale experiments were performed using a 240-dm3 horizontal composting reactor equipped with an air supply system, biomass temperature measuring system, and air humidity and temperature sensors. An organic fraction of municipal solid waste with the addition of a structural material was used as a substrate in this process. As a result of the autothermal biodrying process, the initial moisture content of organic waste ranging from 0.8 to 0.9 kgH2O/kg of raw waste mass decreased by 50%. Water balances were calculated before and after biodrying, and the difference was less than 10%. The heat of combustion and the calorific value of dried wastes ranged respectively from 6,750 to 12,280 kJ/kg and from 8,050 to 10,980 kJ/kg. The biodrying efficiency varied from 0.73 to 0.97, depending on process conditions. Energy balances showed that average biological energy production rates varied between 1.66 and 6.90 W/kg of raw waste mass. diunduh 11/3/2012

103 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures The composting process
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) One of the significant challenges to composting high moisture materials like manure is supplying adequate bulking material to provide porosity for oxygen transport through the pile. This added material, such as cornstalks, sawdust, or straw, often cost significant money or time to acquire, and can increase the volume requiring processing by several times, thus increasing materials handling and application costs. Recently several strategies have been developed which take advantage of the biological drying that naturally occurs during thermophilic composting to reduce bulking amendment requirements dramatically. The composting process The composting process involves four main components: organic matter, moisture, oxygen, and bacteria. Organic matter includes plant materials and some animal manures. Organic materials used for compost should include a mixture of brown organic material (dead leaves, twigs, manure) and green organic material (lawn clippings, fruit rinds, etc.). Brown materials supply carbon, while green materials supply nitrogen. The best ratio is 1 part green to 1 part brown material. Shredding, chopping or mowing these materials into smaller pieces will help speed the composting process by increasing the surface area. For piles that have mostly brown material (dead leaves), try adding a handful of commercial fertilizer to supply nitrogen and speed the compost process. Moisture is important to support the composting process. Compost should be comparable to the wetness of a wrung-out sponge. If the pile is too dry, materials will decompose very slowly. Add water during dry periods or when adding large amounts of brown organic material. If the pile is too wet, turn the pile and mix the materials. Another option is to add dry, brown organic materials. Oxygen is needed to support the breakdown of plant material by bacteria. To supply oxygen, you will need to turn the compost pile so that materials at the edges are brought to the center of the pile. Turning the pile is important for complete composting and for controlling odor. Wait at least two weeks before turning the pile, to allow the center of the pile to "heat up" and decompose. Once the pile has cooled in the center, decomposition of the materials has taken place. Frequent turning will help speed the composting process. Bacteria and other microorganisms are the real workers in the compost process. By supplying organic materials, water, and oxygen, the already present bacteria will break down the plant material into useful compost for the garden. As the bacteria decompose the materials, they release heat, which is concentrated in the center of the pile. In addition to bacteria, larger organisms including insects and earthworms are active composters. These organisms break down large materials in the compost pile. (http://urbanext.illinois.edu/compost/process.cfm) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

104 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) Composting as traditionally practiced achieves a moderate level of drying, with manure usually blended with bulking materials to an initial moisture content of 65% (wet basis), and the subsequent heating, evaporation, and air movement reducing the moisture content to 45% or less over a period of weeks or months. This process is quite simple in its essence: manure (and amendments) contain energy, aerobic decomposing microorganisms are only about 60% efficient at converting that energy to cell synthesis or metabolic work, and the remaining 40% is transformed to "waste" heat. Air moving through the compost pile (either by forced ventilation or passive convection and diffusion) gets hot and evaporates water from the surfaces of particles. How long does it take? The amount of time needed to produce compost depends on several factors, including the size of the compost pile, the types of materials, the surface area of the materials, and the number of times the pile is turned. For most efficient composting, use a pile that is between 3 feet cubed and 5 feet cubed ( cu. ft.). This allows the center of the pile to heat up sufficiently to break down materials. (http://urbanext.illinois.edu/compost/process.cfm) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

105 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) There are two aspects to reconfiguring the traditional composting process for high-moisture manures. First, the linkage between microbial heat generation and evaporation must be explicitly recognized and optimized. A detailed discussion of this optimization problem has been presented elsewhere (Richard and Choi, 1996), but will be briefly reviewed here. Second, and perhaps more revolutionary, is a change in the materials handling system. Almost all composting is operated as a batch process, where materials are mixed together initially and then proceed through the process as a "batch". The suggested alternative, which can be considered as a sequencing batch or semi-continuous process, starts out as a batch but then get repeated sequential additions of more high-moisture manure. Richard, T.L., and H.-L. Choi Optimizing the composting process for moisture removal: theoretical analysis and experimental results. ASAE Paper No Presented at the ASAE 1996 International Meeting in Phoenix, AZ. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

106 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) Theoretical Analysis and Optimization Biodrying of a composting material results from the interaction of physical and biological processes. The physical processes include airflow rate, vapor transfer rates from the substrate to the airstream, inlet and outlet conditions of temperature and relative humidity, and the reactor configuration as it affects the balance between conductive and convective energy losses. The biological process of principal importance is the degradation rate, which releases energy and is itself a function of temperature as well as moisture and oxygen concentration. For the purposes of this analysis we assume moisture and oxygen concentration are not limiting, since by definition we are starting with a high moisture mixture and utilizing high airflow rates to remove heat. Effective heat removal typically requires approximately an order of magnitude more airflow than is needed to satisfy aerobic reaction stoichiometry (Finstein et al., 1986). Finstein, M.S., F.C. Miller and P.F. Strom Waste treatment composting as a controlled system. pp In: Biotechnology: a comprehensive treatis in 8 vol. , H.-J. Rehm and G. Reed (eds.), Vol. 8. Microbial degradations, W. Schönborn (vol. ed.). VCH Verlagsgesellschaft (German Chemical Society), Weinheim, FRG. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

107 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) The removal of water from a composting reactor can be accurately predicted through psychrometric analysis if the inlet and outlet temperatures and relative humidities as well as the airflow rate are known. The details of the psychrometric equations and their use have been presented elsewhere (Albright, 1990). Albright, L.D Environment Control for Animals and Plants. ASAE Textbook No. 4. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. 453 pp. What is compost? Compost is decomposed organic material. Compost is made with material such as leaves, shredded twigs, and kitchen scraps from plants. To gardeners, compost is considered "black gold" because of its many benefits in the garden. Compost is a great material for garden soil. Adding compost to clay soils makes them easier to work and plant. In sandy soils, the addition of compost improves the water holding capacity of the soil. By adding organic matter to the soil, compost can help improve plant growth and health. (http://urbanext.illinois.edu/compost/process.cfm) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

108 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) Meskipun pemodelan aspek fisik penguapan air relatif mudah, aspek biologinya jauh lebih kompleks. Beberapa peneliti telah mengembangkan model yang menggambarkan efek suhu pada kinetika degradasi, dengan hasil yang bervariasi (Richard and Choi, 1996). Dalam contoh ini, secara teoritis laju biodrying akan digambarkan dengan menggunakan model Andrews dan Kambhu (1973), yang menggunakan persamaan yang mirip dengan bentuk klasik Arrhenius yang digunakan dalam teknik kimia dan biokimia. Using their parameters, the model has a temperature optimum at 57°C, decreasing to near zero at 68°C, which roughly corresponds to the results of several experimental studies. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

109 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
where Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) Given the relationships between temperature, moisture removal and decomposition rate, the optimization problem requires us to look for the temperature at or above the peak in the temperature kinetic function where the change in moisture removal rate with temperature is zero. This can be expressed: Where Untuk kondisi inflow udara yang konstan, dan dengan asumsi tidak ada perubahan suhu substrat di dalam timbunan, hal ini dapat mengurangi masalah steady state. Masalah ini dapat dipecahkan dengan menetapkan generasi panas (ditentukan dengan hubungan kinetika dan stoikiometri) sama dengan pembuangan panas (ditentukan oleh hubungan psychrometric) untuk menentukan suhu optimum penguapan air. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

110 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) The figure plots the calculated rate of moisture removal at five different maximum decomposition rates (kmax), which span the range of most manure composting mixtures. At the highest decomposition rate, the model predicts moisture removal rates of over 1 kg H2O per kg volatile solids (VS) per day. For comparison with units more typically presented in experimental results, if we assume VS = total solids (TS), a moisture removal rate of 1 kg H2O per kg VS per day is equivalent to a reduction from 70% moisture to 57% moisture in 24 hours, while a moisture removal rate of 1.5 kg H2O per kg VS per day is equivalent to a reduction from 70% moisture to 45% moisture in 24 hours. Effect of maximum degradation rate on moisture removal rate, using the model of Andrews and Kambhu (1973). …… diunduh 17/3/2012

111 Composting Strategies for High Moisture Manures
Tom L. Richard, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University ) Biodrying of high moisture organic residuals is a natural corollary to the composting process. Systems designed for the sequential addition of wet organic materials can significantly reduce bulking amendment requirements while simultaneously achieving high decomposition rates. This mode of operation can alternatively be viewed as a sequential batch reactor, recycling the bulking amendment for multiple batches of compost, with a very high proportion of recycled compost in each mix. This high rate of recycle can reduce or eliminate the lag time associated with composting system startup, further increasing decomposition and moisture removal rates. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

112 Water Res. 2010 Dec;44(20):6144-52. Epub 2010 Jul 13.
Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge. Zhao L, Gu WM, He PJ, Shao LM. ABSTRACT Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was % of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

113 Bioresour Technol. 2008 Dec;99(18):8796-802. Epub 2008 Jun 3.
Bio-drying of municipal solid waste with high water content by aeration procedures regulation and inoculation. Zhang DQ, He PJ, Jin TF, Shao LM. To improve the water content reduction of municipal solid waste with high water content, the operations of supplementing a hydrolytic stage prior to aerobic degradation and inoculating the bio-drying products were conducted. A 'bio-drying index' was used to evaluate the bio-drying performance. For the aerobic processes, the inoculation accelerated organics degradation, enhanced the lignocelluloses degradation rate by 10.4%, and lowered water content by 7.0%. For the combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes, the inoculum addition had almost no positive effect on the bio-drying efficiency, but it enhanced the lignocelluloses degradation rate by 9.6% and strengthened the acidogenesis in the hydrolytic stage. Compared with the aerobic processes, the combined processes had a higher bio-drying index (4.20 for non-inoculated and 3.67 for the inoculated trials). Moreover, the lowest final water content occurred in the combined process without inoculation (50.5% decreased from an initial 72.0%). ABSTRACT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

114 ABSTRACT Bioresour Technol. 2009 Feb;100(3):1087-93. Epub 2008 Oct 1.
Effect of inoculation time on the bio-drying performance of combined hydrolytic-aerobic process. Zhang DQ, He PJ, Yu LZ, Shao LM. The study aimed at investigating the effects of inoculation time on the bio-drying performance of combined hydrolytic-aerobic process. Results showed that the addition of inoculating material at different time exhibited various effects not only on the degradation rate of total organics, but also on the performance of water removal and water content reduction. The beginning of aerobic stage (day 5) was suggested to be the optimal time for inoculation. Under this operational condition, 815 g/kg-W(0) (W(0)=initial water content) was removed and the water content reduced from the initial 72.0% to 48.5%. Adding inoculating material at the start of hydrolytic stage (day 0) reduced water removal and water content reduction rates. The addition of inoculating material at day 7 or 9 could not improve the bio-drying performance significantly. Additionally, the inoculation at days 0, 5, 7 and 9 enhanced lignocelluloses degradation rate by 3.8%, 11.6%, 7.9% and 7.7%, respectively. ABSTRACT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

115 ABSTRACT Water Res. 2011 Mar;45(6):2322-30. Epub 2011 Jan 22.
Biodegradation potential of bulking agents used in sludge bio-drying and their contribution to bio-generated heat. Zhao L, Gu WM, He PJ, Shao LM. Straw and sawdust are commonly used bulking agents in sludge composting or bio-drying. It is important to determine if they contribute to the biodegradable volatile solids pool. A sludge bio-drying process was performed in this study using straw, sawdust and their combination as the bulking agents. The results revealed that straw has substantial biodegradation potential in the aerobic process and sawdust has poor capacity to be degraded. The temperature profile and bio-drying efficiency were highest in the trial that straw was added, as indicated by a moisture removal ratio and VS loss ratio of 62.3 and 31.0%, respectively. In separate aerobic incubation tests, straw obtained the highest oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of 2.14 and 4.75 mg O(2) g(-1)VS h(-1) at 35 °C and 50 °C, respectively, while the highest OUR values of sludge were 12.1 and 5.68 mg O(2) g(-1)VS h(-1) at 35 °C and 50 °C and those of sawdust were and mg O(2) g(-1)VS h(-1), respectively. The distribution of biochemical fractions revealed that soluble fractions in hot water and hot neutral detergent were the main substrates directly attacked by microorganisms, which accounted for the initial OUR peak. The cellulose-like fraction in straw was transformed to soluble fractions, resulting in an increased duration of aerobic respiration. Based on the potential VS degradation rate, no bio-generated heat was contributed by sawdust, while that contribution by straw was about 41.7% and the ratio of sludge/straw was 5:1 (w/w, wet basis). ABSTRACT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

116 Bioresour Technol. 2002 Jul;83(3):173-9.
The influence of biomass temperature on biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste. Adani F, Baido D, Calcaterra E, Genevini P. Abstract A laboratory study was carried out to obtain data on the influence of biomass temperature on biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste (initial moisture content of 410 g kg wet weight (w.w.)(-1)). Three trials were carried out at three different biomass temperatures, obtained by airflow rate control (A = 70 degrees C, B = 60 degrees C and C = 45 degrees C). Biodegradation and biodrying were inversely correlated: fast biodrying produced low biological stability and vice versa. The product obtained from process A was characterized by the highest degradation coefficient (166 g kg TS0(-1); TS0(-1) = initial total solid content) and lowest water loss (409 g kg W0(-1); W0 = initial water content). Due to the high reduction of easily degradable volatile solid content and preservation of water, process A produced the highest biological stability (dynamic respiration index, DRI = 141 mg O2 kg VS(-1); VS = volatile solids) but the lowest energy content (EC = 10,351 kJ kg w.w.(-1)). Conversely, process C which showed the highest water elimination (667 g kg W0(-1)), and lowest degradation rate (18 g kg TS0(-1)) was optimal for refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production having the highest energy content (EC = 14,056 kJ kg w.w.(-1)). Nevertheless, the low biological stability reached, due to preservation of degradable volatile solids, at the end of the process (DRI = 1055 mg O2 kg VS(-1)), indicated that the RDF should be used immediately, without storage. Trial B showed substantial agreement between low moisture content (losses of 665 g kg W0(-1)), high energy content (EC = 13,558 kJ kg w.w.(-1)) and good biological stability (DRI = 166 mg O2 kg VS(-1)), so that, in this case, the product could be used immediately for RDF or stored with minimum pollutant impact (odors, leaches and biogas production). …… diunduh 17/3/2012

117 ABSTRACT Bioresour Technol. 2005 Aug;96(12):1331-7. Epub 2005 Jan 20.
Biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste by inverting air-flow. Sugni M, Calcaterra E, Adani F. The process of biodrying could be a good solution for municipal solid waste management, allowing the production of fuel with an interesting energy content. Previous work (Adani, F., Baido, D., Calcaterra, E., Genevini, P.L., The influence of biomass temperature on biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste. Bioresource Technology 83 (3), ) has indicated that appropriate management of the processing parameters (air-flow rate and biomass temperatures) could achieve biomass drying in very short times (8-9 days). However, the data of that work also evidenced that if the conditions do not consider pile turning, and the air-flow is always from one direction, temperature gradients arise within the biomass, resulting in a lack of homogeneity in the moisture and energy content of the final product. Therefore, a new laboratory study was conducted on municipal solid waste biodrying-biostabilization in an effort to obtain homogeneous final products. Our proposal to solve this lack of homogeneity is to periodically invert the air-flow direction. Thus, in line with a previous study, two trials, A and B, were carried out, dividing the biomass into three layers to study temperature and moisture gradients throughout the process, and a third trial (C) simulating air-flow inversion at regular intervals was introduced. The results suggest that the daily inversion of air-flow eliminates marked temperature differences and leads to a homogeneous final product. ABSTRACT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

118 Bioresour Technol. 2009 Jun;100(11):2747-61. Epub 2009 Feb 11.
Biodrying for mechanical-biological treatment of wastes: a review of process science and engineering. Velis C.A, Longhurst P.J, Drew G.H, Smith R, Pollard S.J. Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition, used within mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants to dry and partially stabilise residual municipal waste. Biodrying MBT plants can produce a high quality solid recovered fuel (SRF), high in biomass content. Here, process objectives, operating principles, reactor designs, parameters for process monitoring and control, and their effect on biodried output quality are critically examined. Within the biodrying reactors, waste is dried by air convection, the necessary heat provided by exothermic decomposition of the readily decomposable waste fraction. Biodrying is distinct from composting in attempting to dry and preserve most of biomass content of the waste matrix, rather than fully stabilise it. Commercial process cycles are completed within 7-15 days, with mostly H(2)O((g)) and CO(2) loses of ca % w/w, leading to moisture contents of <20% w/w. High airflow rate and dehumidifying of re-circulated process air provides for effective drying. We anticipate this review will be of value to MBT process operators, regulators and end-users of SRF. ABSTRACT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

119 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664812 …… diunduh 17/3/2012
Bioresour Technol Aug;102(16): Epub 2011 May 23. Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties. Tambone F, Scaglia B, Scotti S, Adani F. In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,779±2,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas. ABSTRACT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

120 Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Bizukojc M, Ledakowicz S.
Water Res Apr;36(8): Kinetics of the aerobic biological degradation of shredded municipal solid waste in liquid phase. Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Bizukojc M, Ledakowicz S. Abstract The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) should be utilised by means of biological methods. The biodegradation of solid wastes can be intensified owing to application of the bioreactors. Estimation of the optimum values of the organic load is one of the most important tasks for the aerobic biodegradation processes. The kinetic model of biological oxidation of the organic wastes has been presented in this paper. The experiments were carried out in batch 6-l working volume stirred tank bioreactors at constant temperature of 25 degrees C. Initial total solids have been at the levels of 15, 19, 34, 55 and 66 g l(-1). The kinetics of microbial decomposition of organic substances was described by means of an unstructured model. The satisfactory time courses for substrate chemical oxygen demand in the solid (CODs) and liquid phase (CODL) and biomass concentration (RNA) have been achieved. Also, the influence of the initial TS on the kinetics of the biodegradation process was investigated and the optimum value of initial TS for this type of processes was estimated at g l(-1). …… diunduh 17/3/2012

121 ABSTRACT J Biotechnol. 2003 Mar 6;101(2):165-72.
Estimation of viable biomass in aerobic biodegradation processes of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Ledakowicz S. 2-(p-Iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) dehydrogenase test and RNA assay were introduced to evaluate biomass in the processes of aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) in bioreactors. It was found that RNA quantification by KOH/UV method delivered reliable and repeatable results. Relative standard deviation (RSD) for INT test was significantly higher than for RNA assay and achieved values of 3-15%. Moreover, it occurred that the optimum temperature for the growth of autochthonic biomass, which takes part in the biodegradation process, was in the range from 25 to 37 degrees C. ABSTRACT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

122 Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Bizukojc M, Ledakowicz S.
Water Res Apr;36(8): Kinetics of the aerobic biological degradation of shredded municipal solid waste in liquid phase. Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Bizukojc M, Ledakowicz S. Abstract The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) should be utilised by means of biological methods. The biodegradation of solid wastes can be intensified owing to application of the bioreactors. Estimation of the optimum values of the organic load is one of the most important tasks for the aerobic biodegradation processes. The kinetic model of biological oxidation of the organic wastes has been presented in this paper. The experiments were carried out in batch 6-l working volume stirred tank bioreactors at constant temperature of 25 degrees C. Initial total solids have been at the levels of 15, 19, 34, 55 and 66 g l(-1). The kinetics of microbial decomposition of organic substances was described by means of an unstructured model. The satisfactory time courses for substrate chemical oxygen demand in the solid (CODs) and liquid phase (CODL) and biomass concentration (RNA) have been achieved. Also, the influence of the initial TS on the kinetics of the biodegradation process was investigated and the optimum value of initial TS for this type of processes was estimated at g l(-1). …… diunduh 17/3/2012

123 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611099…… diunduh 17/3/2012
Waste Manag. 2008;28(7): Epub 2007 Jul 3. Modelling of moisture-dependent aerobic degradation of solid waste. Pommier S, Chenu D, Quintard M, Lefebvre X. Abstract In landfill, high temperature levels come from aerobic reactions inside the waste surface layer. They are known to make anaerobic processes more reliable, by partial removal of easily biodegradable substrates. Aerobic biodegradation of the main components of biodegradable matter (paper and cardboard waste, food and yard waste) is considered. In this paper, two models which take into account the effect of moisture on aerobic biodegradation kinetics are discussed. The first one (Model A) is a simple, first order, substrate-related model, which assumes that substrate hydrolysis is the limiting step of the process. The second one (Model B) is a biomass-dependant model, considering biological growth processes. Respirometric experiments were performed in order to evaluate the efficiency of each model. The biological oxygen demands of shredded paper and cardboard samples and of food and yard waste samples prepared at various initial water contents were measured. These experimental data were used to identify model parameters. Model A, which includes moisture dependency on the maximum amount of biodegraded matter, is relevant for paper and cardboard biodegradation. On the other hand, Model B, including moisture effect on the growth rate of biomass is suitable to describe food and yard waste biodegradation. diunduh 17/3/2012

124 ABSTRACT Waste Manag Res. 2001 Feb;19(1):58-69.
The role of aerobic activity on refuse temperature rise: II. Experimental and numerical modelling. Lanini S, Houi D, Aguilar O, Lefebvre X. The biodegradation of a model waste is studied in a 300-litre pilot. The aim is to better understand the role of biochemical processes on the temperature rise, in relation to landfill management protocols. The variations of temperature and gas composition distributions in the waste are accurately measured and analysed. The observations confirm that biological consumption of the oxygen diffusing through the waste is the main source of heat. A theoretical modelling of coupled heat and oxygen transfers in fresh refuse is then proposed. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data, but it appears that biochemical kinetics should account for the carbon availability limitation. Finally, a prediction of the temperature field in a landfill is presented. ABSTRACT diunduh 17/3/2012

125 Stanisław Ledakowicz, Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek
BIODRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Stanisław Ledakowicz, Agnieszka Zawadzka, Liliana Krzystek Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska Str. 213, Lodz, Poland The effect of air flow rate on the change of biomass (organic waste material) temperature and moisture content during an autothermal drying process was discussed in this paper. The laboratory-scale experiments were performed using a 240 dm3 capacity, horizontal composting reactor (insulated with polyurethane foam), equipped with an air-supply system, compost temperature measuring system, and air humidity and temperature sensors. An organic fraction of municipal solid waste with the addition of structural material was used as a substrate in this process. As a result of the autothermal biodrying process, moisture content decreased by 50% at the initial moisture content of organic waste ranging from 800 to 900 gH2O/kg wet weight. Water balances were calculated before and after the composting and drying process. Very good agreement of the calculated water balances was obtained. The heat of combustion of dried waste and its calorific value were kJ/g and kJ/g, respectively. ABSTRACT diunduh 17/3/2012

126 Potential for Biodrying Manure
Peter Wright Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell University Abstract Studies have shown that spreading liquid manure when soils are near saturation or when they are likely to become saturated before crop uptake of nutrients can occur, can result in significant nutrient and bacterial discharges to the water through tile lines and runoff. Often nutrient management plans designed to protect water quality prescribe manure storage. Stored liquid manure can produce significant objectionable odors both during storage and when spread. Catastrophic failure of liquid systems is a risk that many farms want to avoid. Biodrying as described in this paper is a system that has the potential to improve water quality by increasing the likelihood of nutrient export. It can provide a stabilized solid for spreading on hay ground during the growing season. Biodrying will meet the farm's need for odor control. Smaller farms' desire for a solid based treatment system would be addressed as well. The design of a Biodrying process on an 85 cow dairy farm in the NYC Watershed will be described. This work has been funded by a grant from NYSERDA and is being constructed in the spring of This will include designing and building a composting shed, installing a forced air system that will be controlled to optimize the composting and drying of the manure. If managed carefully, the heat generated by aerobic composting can provide the energy to reduce 12% dry matter (DM) manure to a 60% DM residual. The compost would be reduced one half in volume and to one fifth the weight of the original manure due to water loss and solid conversion to gasses. Preliminary analysis shows that the cost of operating the system minus the cost of additional benefits including off site sales is less than the cost of conventional liquid storage and land spreading that would meet the environmental goals for the farm. If successful, this system would have application on many dairy farms. diunduh 17/3/2012

127 Potential for Biodrying Manure Description of Biodrying
Peter Wright Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell University If managed carefully, the heat generated by aerobic composting can provide the energy to reduce 12% DM manure to a 60% DM residual. Forced air composting, under a roof, with the air flow controlled carefully would optimize this process. Composting works best with an initial moisture content below 70%. Recent applications of composting operations have shown the feasibility of this process by using forced air to compost six foot high layers of manure in 21 days. Recycled compost or a mix of compost and sawdust, or other amendment, at 40% dry matter could be spread in the cow alleys about 3 inches thick to absorb one days production of 12% DM manure. The mixture could be scraped into a shed, piled 6 feet deep and aerated to produce 40% DM compost in 3 weeks. The figure shows a side view, plan view and cross section of the biodrying shed. The building was designed with a high overshot roof, open walls, and four foot eaves to provide good ventilation while keeping the process protected from precipitation. Manure and recycled compost can be loaded from either side, although preliminary trials have shown that a side delivery manure spreader can build a six foot pile 40 feet long. Description of Biodrying diunduh 17/3/2012

128 Potential for Biodrying Manure Proposed Biodrying Building.
Peter Wright Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell University Proposed Biodrying Building. diunduh 17/3/2012

129 Potential for Biodrying Manure
Peter Wright Senior Extension Associate . PRO-DAIRY Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Cornell University The air flow calculated for this system compares with various air flows form the literature. Table 1 shows different air flows that were successful in composting the listed ingredients. A control system can be developed to run the fans that will optimize the composting operation (Hall). Comparison of air flows and ingredients for various composting operations. diunduh 17/3/2012

130 Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Effect of temperature and air flow rate on carbon and nitrogen compounds changes during the biodrying of swine manure in order to produce combustible biomasses Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Stéphane Godbout, François Léveillée, Dan Zegan, Jean-Pierre Larouche. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: /jctb.3744 Manure is the main waste of raising livestock, when spreading in soils can cause surface and ground water pollution. The management of manure is associated with emissions of greenhouse gases and odours. Dry manure contains at least 45% of carbon. This is an attractive characteristic for energetic valorisation. To use manure in the production of energy, it must be previously dried. Wet solids from swine manure containing 30% of dry matter were dried in laboratory scale biodryers. Four levels of aeration rate from 0.4 to 4 L min−1 kg and five levels of temperature from 25 to 65 °C were tested. The highest emissions of CO2, NH3 and N2O occurred at the highest air flow rate of 4 L min−1 kg. For all operating conditions, the high calorific power had a mean value of 15 ± 0.4 MJ kg. The dried biomass obtained had an energetic potential to valorise by combustion. The bed temperature and aeration rate have an effect on carbon and nitrogen bio-cycles. These operating parameters can also control the release quantity and gaseous form of nitrogen. Several problems related to swine manure management can be solved by using biodrying, an economic and environmental friendly technology. ABSTRACT diunduh 17/3/2012

131 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE In order to take advantage of heat released during composting, the autothermal drying process requires the maintenance of adequate air flow combined with temperature. The aim of this paper was to construct a drying tunnel enabling the automatic control and regulation of the basic process parameters for biomass drying (organic fraction of municipal solid waste together with plant structural material) to obtain biofuel. In the course of investigations, various constructions of a drying tunnel were tested. The best results were accomplished for a horizontal reactor with the automatic regulation of air flow. About 50% reduction of moisture content and dry mass on the level of 0.53 kgdry mass/kgwet weight were obtained. The heat of combustion of dried waste and its calorific value were kJ/g waste and kJ/g waste, respectively. ABSTRACT diunduh 17/3/2012

132 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Schematic diagram of autothermal drying tunnel No 1: 1 – Drying tunnel, 2 – Polyurethane foam, 3 – Cover with holes, 4 – Inlet air, 5 – Outlet air, 6 – Biofilter, 7 – Stand diunduh 17/3/2012

133 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Schematic diagram of drying tunnel No. 2: 1 – Polyurethane foam, 2 – Cover with holes, 3 – Metal bar, 4 – Outlet air, 5 – Inlet air, 6 – Biofilter, 7 – Engine, 8 – Stand diunduh 17/3/2012

134 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Schematic diagram of the autothermal drying tunnel No. 3: 1 – Composted biomass, 2 – Drying tunnel, 3 – Polyurethane foam, 4 – Duct heater, 5 – In-line duct fan, 6 – Inlet air, 7, 8 – Temperature sensors of composted biomass, 9 – Temperature sensor of biomass over compost, 10 – Biofilter, 11 – Outlet air, 12 – Exhaust fan, 13 – Temperature and moisture sensors of outlet air autothermal drying tunnel diunduh 17/3/2012

135 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Duration of the composting and drying cycle in reactor No. 1 was 11 days. The initial moisture of waste attained the value of 0.86 kgH2O/kgwet weight. The final moisture value was equal to 0.53 kgH2O/kgwet weight, (Table 1). In this test cycle one could observe a decrease of moisture by about 30%. Figure 4 shows the temperature mean values of composting biomass in reactor 1. Within the first three days of the drying process an increase of temperature can be noticed. The highest temperature recorded during the process was 33 °C. It must be added that it was attained on the 2nd and 3rd day of the process. After four days the temperature decreased to 28 °C. Afterwards, the repeated increase by 2 °C was observed. On the 8th and 9th day the temperature started to decrease to the value of 26 °C. On the 11th day of the process the repeated increase in temperature was observed and its value was 32 °C. Low temperatures obtained in this test series and high final moisture of biomass as well as the observed increase in the temperature were probably caused by a lack of the appropriate mixing and air flow. diunduh 17/3/2012

136 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Temperature in composting biomass in reactors No. 1 and 2 On the 1st day of the process the temperature in the reactor No. 2 was 25 °C. On the 3rd day one could observe an increase in temperature up to 39 °C. On the 4th day of the process a decrease in temperature to 35 °C was noticed. The highest temperature in this test cycle (40 °C) was obtained on the 5th day. On subsequent days a decrease in temperature can be noticed. On the last day of the investigations the temperature of biomass reached the value of 28 °C. It is highly probable that the observed increase in temperature, similarly to reactor 1, is caused by a lack of the appropriate mixing and air flow. In reactor 2, analogously to reactor 1, a similar level of decrease in moisture content of waste mass (about 20%) was obtained. Nonetheless, higher temperatures were recorded (40 °C), which was due to the better process conditions for composting than in reactor 1. Notwithstanding, those results are not satisfactory due to the fact that the final waste moisture content was very high. diunduh 17/3/2012

137 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Temperature in the top and bottom of waste mass layer in reactor No. 3 On the first days of the composting process, the temperature in the bottom layer was higher and amounted to about 23 °C, while temperature of the top layer was about 21 °C. On the 6th day of the process, a temperature growth was observed in both layers. The highest temperatures, reaching 53 °C, were obtained in the bottom waste layer. The temperature in the top layer was lower by about 2 °C in this period. At the end of the process, a decrease of temperatures in both layers to the level close to inlet air temperatures, i.e. 21 °C to 23 °C, was observed. The temperature of the top layer was 23 °C, while that of the bottom layer about 25 °C. On the 10th day of the cycle, temperature of the bottom layer was on a higher level. The difference of temperature of the bottom and top layer was not too high and attained the values ranging from 2 °C to 5 °C, which indicates a satisfactory level of homogeneity in the moisture and energy content of the final product. diunduh 17/3/2012

138 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Temperature and humidity of outlet air in reactor No. 3 Air humidity at the beginning of the composting process was kept on the level of about 52%. The highest value of this parameter reaching 75–79% was obtained after 3 days of the process. At the end of the process, air humidity dropped to the value ranging from 37% to 39%. Initially, the outlet air temperature was 21 °C to 23 °C. The highest value of this parameter − about 33 °C, was obtained on the last days of the process. During the tested processes no high temperatures of the outlet air were found which could be due to temperature of the composting waste. diunduh 17/3/2012

139 AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Environment Protection Engineering . Vol No. 3 AGNIESZKA ZAWADZKA, LILIANA KRZYSTEK, STANISŁAW LEDAKOWICZ. AUTOTHERMAL DRYING OF ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE The elementary analysis of composting waste was performed and the heat of combustion and calorific value were determined. The heat of combustion (ΔHc0) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat. It may be expressed with the quantities: energy/mole of fuel (kJ/mol) energy/mass of fuel energy/volume of fuel The heat of combustion is conventionally measured with a bomb calorimeter. It may also be calculated as the difference between the heat of formation (ΔfH0) of the products and reactants. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion) diunduh 17/3/2012

140 Waste Manag. 2010 Jul;30(7):1165-70. Epub 2010 Jan 27.
Bio-drying and size sorting of municipal solid waste with high water content for improving energy recovery. Shao LM, Ma ZH, Zhang H, Zhang DQ, He PJ. Abstract Bio-drying can enhance the sortability and heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW), consequently improving energy recovery. Bio-drying followed by size sorting was adopted for MSW with high water content to improve its combustibility and reduce potential environmental pollution during the follow-up incineration. The effects of bio-drying and waste particle size on heating values, acid gas and heavy metal emission potential were investigated. The results show that, the water content of MSW decreased from 73.0% to 48.3% after bio-drying, whereas its lower heating value (LHV) increased by 157%. The heavy metal concentrations increased by around 60% due to the loss of dry materials mainly resulting from biodegradation of food residues. The bio-dried waste fractions with particle size higher than 45 mm were mainly composed of plastics and papers, and were preferable for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in view of higher LHV as well as lower heavy metal concentration and emission. However, due to the higher chlorine content and HCl emission potential, attention should be paid to acid gas and dioxin pollution control. Although LHVs of the waste fractions with size <45 mm increased by around 2x after bio-drying, they were still below the quality standards for RDF and much higher heavy metal pollution potential was observed. Different incineration strategies could be adopted for different particle size fractions of MSW, regarding to their combustibility and pollution property. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

141 Waste Manag. 2011 Aug;31(8):1790-6. Epub 2011 May 4.
Evolution of heavy metals in municipal solid waste during bio-drying and implications of their subsequent transfer during combustion. Zhang DQ, Zhang H, Wu CL, Shao LM, He PJ. Abstract Bio-drying has been applied to improve the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to combustion. In the present study, evolution of heavy metals in MSW during bio-drying and subsequent combustion was studied using one aerobic and two combined hydrolytic-aerobic scenarios. Heavy metals were concentrated during bio-drying and transformed between different metal fractions, namely the exchangeable, carbonate-bound, iron- and manganese-oxides-bound, organic-matter-bound and residual fractions. The amounts of heavy metals per kg of bio-dried MSW transferred into combustion flue gas increased with bio-drying time, primarily due to metals enrichment from organics degradation. Because of their volatility, the partitioning ratios of As and Hg in flue gas remained stable so that bio-drying and heavy metal speciation had little effect on their transfer and partitioning during combustion. Sebaliknya, rasio partisi Pb, Zn dan Cu cenderung meningkat setelah bio-drying, yang kemungkinan meningkatkan potensi emisinya selama pembakaran. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

142 Waste Manag. 2010 Jul;30(7):1165-70. Epub 2010 Jan 27.
Bio-drying and size sorting of municipal solid waste with high water content for improving energy recovery. Shao LM, Ma ZH, Zhang H, Zhang DQ, He PJ. Abstract Bio-drying can enhance the sortability and heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW), consequently improving energy recovery. Bio-drying followed by size sorting was adopted for MSW with high water content to improve its combustibility and reduce potential environmental pollution during the follow-up incineration. The effects of bio-drying and waste particle size on heating values, acid gas and heavy metal emission potential were investigated. The results show that, the water content of MSW decreased from 73.0% to 48.3% after bio-drying, whereas its lower heating value (LHV) increased by 157%. The heavy metal concentrations increased by around 60% due to the loss of dry materials mainly resulting from biodegradation of food residues. The bio-dried waste fractions with particle size higher than 45 mm were mainly composed of plastics and papers, and were preferable for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in view of higher LHV as well as lower heavy metal concentration and emission. However, due to the higher chlorine content and HCl emission potential, attention should be paid to acid gas and dioxin pollution control. Although LHVs of the waste fractions with size <45 mm increased by around 2x after bio-drying, they were still below the quality standards for RDF and much higher heavy metal pollution potential was observed. Different incineration strategies could be adopted for different particle size fractions of MSW, regarding to their combustibility and pollution property. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

143 Waste Manag. 2009 Nov;29(11):2816-23. Epub 2009 Jul 15.
Sorting efficiency and combustion properties of municipal solid waste during bio-drying. Zhang DQ, He PJ, Shao LM. Abstract One aerobic and two combined bio-drying processes were set up to investigate the quantitative relationships of sorting efficiency and combustion properties with organics degradation and water removal during bio-drying. Results showed that the bio-drying could enhance the sorting efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW) up to 71% from the initial of 34%. The sorting efficiency was correlated with water content negatively (correlation coefficient, r=-0.89) and organics degradation rate positively (r=0.92). The higher heating values (HHVs) were correlated with organics degradation negatively for FP (i.e. the sum of only food and paper) (r=-0.93) but positively for the mixing waste (MW) (r=0.90), whereas the lower heating values (LHVs) were negatively correlated with water content for both FP (r=-0.71) and MW (r=-0.96). Other combustion properties depended on organics degradation performance, except for ignition performance and combustion rate. The LHVs could be greatly enhanced by the combined process with insufficient aeration during the hydrolytic stage. Compared with FP, MW had higher LHVs and ratios of volatile matter to fixed carbon. Nevertheless, FP had higher final burnout values than MW. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

144 . Lower Heating Value Dynamics during Municipal Solid Waste Bio-Drying
E. C. Rada, A. Franzinelli, M. Taiss, M. Ragazzi, V. Panaitescu & T. Apostol Environmental Technology Volume 28, Issue 4, 2007 pages Abstract In agreement with the new European Union directives concerning the valorization of materials and energy recovery, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is, in general based on an integrated approach characterized by a combination of different treatment processes. The bio-mechanical treatment (BMT) of MSW is an increasing option in Europe either as a pre-treatment before landfilling or as a pre-treatment before combustion. In this context the research on the bio-drying process is not fully developed. In the present paper the Lower Heating Value (LHV) dynamics during MSW bio-drying has been assessed. Measurements were made using a pilot scale bio-dryer that allows the recording of data as air flow, temperature (at the entrance, at the exit and inside the waste), and weight loss. An initial characterization of the MSW completes the input data. Results give information on the dynamics of the main process parameters (humidity, volatile solids, ammonia, Lower Heating Value) and also of additional parameters. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

145 The influence of biomass temperature on biostabilization–biodrying of municipal solid waste
Adani, Fabrizio; Baido, Diego; Calcaterra, Enrico; Genevini, Pierluigi Bioresource Technology. Vol. 83. Issue 3. July, Pages Abstract A laboratory study was carried out to obtain data on the influence of biomass temperature on biostabilization–biodrying of municipal solid waste (initial moisture content of 410 g kg wet weight (w.w.) −1). Three trials were carried out at three different biomass temperatures, obtained by airflow rate control ( A=70 °C, B=60 °C and C=45 °C). Biodegradation and biodrying were inversely correlated: fast biodrying produced low biological stability and vice versa. The product obtained from process A was characterized by the highest degradation coefficient (166 g kg TS 0−1; TS 0−1=initial total solid content) and lowest water loss (409 g kg W 0−1; W 0=initial water content). Due to the high reduction of easily degradable volatile solid content and preservation of water, process A produced the highest biological stability (dynamic respiration index, DRI=141 mg O 2 kg VS −1; VS=volatile solids) but the lowest energy content (EC=10,351 kJ kg w.w. −1). Conversely, process C which showed the highest water elimination (667 g kg W 0−1), and lowest degradation rate (18 g kgTS 0−1) was optimal for refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production having the highest energy content (EC=14,056 kJ kg w.w. −1). Nevertheless, the low biological stability reached, due to preservation of degradable volatile solids, at the end of the process (DRI=1055 mg O 2kgVS −1), indicated that the RDF should be used immediately, without storage. Trial B showed substantial agreement between low moisture content (losses of 665 g kg W 0−1), high energy content (EC=13,558 kJ kg w.w. −1) and good biological stability (DRI=166 mg O 2kgVS −1), so that, in this case, the product could be used immediately for RDF or stored with minimum pollutant impact (odors, leaches and biogas production). …… diunduh 17/3/2012

146 J Environ Sci (China). 2010;22(5):752-9.
Release of volatile organic compounds during bio-drying of municipal solid waste. He P, Tang J, Zhang D, Zeng Y, Shao L. Abstract Three treatments were tested to investigate the release concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the bio-drying of municipal solid waste (MSW) by the aerobic and combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes. Results showed that VOCs were largely released in the first 4 days of bio-drying and the dominant components were: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, benzene, 2-butanone, limonene and methylene chloride. Thus, the combined hydrolytic-aerobic process was suggested for MSW bio-drying due to fewer aeration quantities in this phase when compared with the aerobic process, and the treatment strategies should base on the key properties of these prominent components. Malodorous sulfur compounds and terpenes were mainly released in the early phase of bio-drying, whereas, two peaks of release concentrations appeared for aromatics and ketones during bio-drying. Notably, for the combined hydrolytic-aerobic processes there were also high concentrations of released aromatics in the shift from hydrolytic to aerobic stages. High concentrations of released chlorinateds were observed in the later phase. For the VOCs produced during MSW bio-drying, i.e., malodorous sulfur compounds, terpenes and chlorinateds, their release concentrations were mainly determined by production rates; for the VOCs presented initially in MSW, such as aromatics, their transfer and transport in MSW mainly determined the release concentrations. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

147 Xun An Ning, Qing Lin Chen, Jian Bo Zhou, Zuo Yi Yang, Jing Yong Liu
Experimental Study on the Bio-Drying Characteristics and its Influencing Factors of Paper Mill Sludge Xun An Ning, Qing Lin Chen, Jian Bo Zhou, Zuo Yi Yang, Jing Yong Liu Advanced Materials Research, , ABSTRACT The bio-drying characteristics and its influencing factors of paper mill sludge (PMS) were investigated detailedly, by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of the organic substances in the PMS. In the orthogonal experiments, the good results were achieved with the followed optimization technics: starch (25.0g/500.0g), sawdust (40.0g/500.0g), inoculation (15.0mL/500.0g) and KH2PO4 (5.0g/500.0g). During bio-drying, the matrix temperature increased to 47.2℃ within 12-24h rapidly under the given operation parameters, and the maximum was about 48.0℃. In the whole process the pH changed in the range of The quantity of amylolytic bacteria reduced to the minimum in the first day, and the amylolytic bacteria grew well until the process of bio-drying finished. The ATP content was increased drastically in the first day and peaked in the fifth day, with the maximum ATP content was about 6.4×10-6μmol/g. When bio-drying of PMS was finished, the VS content and moisture content (MC) reduced from 58.4% to 49.5% and 62.2% to 50.3% respectively. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

148 Estimation of the energy content of the residual fraction refused by MBT plants: A case study in Zaragoza’s MBT plant Alfonso Aranda Usón, , Germán Ferreira, David Zambrana Vásquez, Ignacio Zabalza Bribián, Eva Llera Sastresa. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 20, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 38–46. Abstract The proper estimation of the energy content of the residual fraction from mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants is essential for planning and promoting different methods to decrease its environmental impact, to lower the consumption of energy resources, and to reduce economic costs. Currently, in many countries, the residual fraction from these plants is disposed of in a landfill with few recovery actions. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the energy content of the aforementioned fraction. To validate it, the methodology is applied to a MBT plant in Zaragoza that collects residual household waste from municipal solid waste (MSW) from 62 municipalities in four regions of Aragon – Zaragoza, Ribera Baja del Ebro, Campo de Cariñena, and Campo de Belchite. An energy potential of  kJ/kg of the residual fraction from this MBT plant is estimated, which is equivalent to  ktoe per year. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

149 . Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants
J. Tintner, E. Smidt, , K. Böhm, E. Binner. Waste Management. Vol. 30, Issue 10, October 2010, Pages 1903–1907 Abstract Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

150 Aerobic and Anaerobic Digestion and Types of Decomposition
Aerobic digestion of waste is the natural biological degradation and purification process in which bacteria that thrive in oxygen-rich environments break down and digest the waste. During oxidation process, pollutants are broken down into carbon dioxide (CO2 ), water (H 2 O), nitrates, sulphates and biomass (microorganisms). By operating the oxygen supply with aerators, the process can be significantly accelerated. Of all the biological treatment methods, aerobic digestion is the most widespread process that is used throughout the world. Advantages of Aerobic Digestion Aerobic bacteria are very efficient in breaking down waste products. The result of this is; aerobic treatment usually yields better effluent quality that that obtained in anaerobic processes. The aerobic pathway also releases a substantial amount of energy. A portion is used by the microorganisms for synthesis and growth of new microorganisms. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

151 DEKOMPOSISI BAHAN ORGANIK SECARA AEROBIK
A biological process, in which, organisms use available organic matter to support biological activity.  The process uses organic matter, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen, and produces stable solids, carbon dioxide, and more organisms.  The microorganisms which can only survive in aerobic conditions are known as aerobic organisms.  In sewer lines the sewage becomes anoxic if left for a few hours and becomes anaerobic if left for more than 1 1/2 days.  Anoxic organisms work well with aerobic and anaerobic organisms.  Facultative and anoxic are basically the same concept. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

152 DEKOMPOSISI BAHAN ORGANIK
Decomposition occurs most rapidly in well aerated soils. When organic plant residues are incorporated into such a soil, three general reactions occur: Carbon compounds are enzymatically oxidized to produce carbon dioxide, water, energy, and decomposed biomass. Elements essential to plant nutrition, such as N, P, and S, are released and/or immobilized by a series of specific reactions that are relatively unique for each element. Compounds very resistant to microbial action are formed. Factors Influencing rate of Organic Matter Decomposition In addition to the composition of organic matter, nature and abundance of microorganisms in soil, the extent of C, N, P and K., moisture content of the soil and its temperature, PH, aeration, C: N ratio of plant residues and presence/absence of inhibitory substances (e.g. tannins) etc. are some of the major factors which influence the rate of organic matter decomposition. (http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=5&topicid=170) diunduh 17/3/2012

153 PROSES PENGERINGAN (DRYING)
“Secara umum drying dapat diartikan sebagai proses untuk mengurangi sebagian kadar air dalam material menggunakan aerasi. Dalam beberapa kasus misalnya kadar air dapat dikurangi secara mekanis dengan menggunakan pressing, sentrifugasi, dan metode lainnya” (Geankoplis,1993: hal 559). “Teknologi pengeringan umumnya mengurangi kandungan uap (MC ) dari matriks kandungan sampah tersebut dengan menggunakan udara panas panas, oleh karena itu air menguap ke fase udara (uap), dan menghasilkan keluaran samapah kering dari karakteristik yang diinginkan” (Dufour, 2006). Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid. This process is often used as a final production step before selling or packaging products. To be considered "dried", the final product must be solid, in the form of a continuous sheet (e.g. paper), long pieces (e.g. wood), particles (e.g. cereal grains or corn flakes) or powder (e.g. sand, salt, washing powder, milk powder). A source of heat, and an agent to remove the vapor produced by the process are necessary. In bioproducts like food, grains, and pharmaceuticals like vaccines, the solvent to be removed is almost invariably water. In the most common case, a gas stream, e.g., air, applies the heat by convection and carries away the vapor as humidity. Other possibilities are vacuum drying, where heat is supplied by conduction or radiation (or microwaves) while the vapor thus produced is removed by the vacuum system. Another indirect technique is drum drying (used, for instance, for manufacturing potato flakes), where a heated surface is used to provide the energy and aspirators draw the vapor outside the room. In turn, the mechanical extraction of the solvent, e.g., water, by centrifugation, is not considered "drying". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drying) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

154 BIODRYING “Biodrying adalah proses dimana matriks sampah biodegradable dengan cepatdipanaskan memalui tahap-tahap awal pembuatan kompos untuk menghasilkan uap air dari aliran dan limbah dan dengan demikian mengurangi berat keseluruhan” ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodrying … 18 Maret 2012) Reaktor Biodrying menggunakan proses teknik fisik dan biokimia. Desainreaktor meliputi wadah digabungkan dengan sistem aerasi, wadah atau tangki dapat berupa tertutup atau terbuka, atau tabung seperti drum. Di sisi biokimia, aerobik  biodegradasi bahan organik mudah terjadi perurain. Di sisi fisik, penghilangankelembaban konvektif dicapai melalui pengendalian aerasi yang berlebih. ( http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-00.htm … 16 Maret 2012) BIODRYING Biodrying (biological drying) is an option for the bioconversion reactor in mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants, an alternative for treating residual municipal solid waste (MSW). Waste treatment plants defined as MBT integrate mechanical processing, such as size reduction and air classification, with bioconversion reactors, such as composting or anaerobic digestion. The term "biodrying" was coined by Jewell et al. (1984) whilst reporting on the operational parameters relevant for drying dairy manure. IN MSW management, the term "biodrying" denotes: the bioconversion reactor within which waste is processed; the physiobiochemical process, which takes place within the reactor; and the MBT plants that include a biodrying reactor: "biodrying MBT". Typically, the biodrying reactor within MBT plants receives shredded unsorted residual MSW and produces a biodried output which undergoes extensive mechanical post-treatment. Within the biodrying bioreactor the thermal energy released during aerobic decomposition of readily degradable organic matter is combined with excess aeration to dry the waste . (http://www.epem.gr/waste-c-control/database/html/Biodrying-00.htm)

155 PROSES BIODRYING Biodrying berbeda dari pengomposan dalam hal tujuan dari setiap proses. Komposting menghasilkan “kompos'' seperti humus yang bermanfaat dan aman digunakan pada lahan. Pengkomposan juga digunakan untuk menstabilkan bahan organik biodegradable dari sampah domestik sebelum ditimbun di TPA, hal ini dapat meminimalkan lindi dan pembentukan gas sampah di TPA. (1) enclosed box; (2) air forced through the waste matrix, heated by the exothermic aerobic biodegradation of readily decomposable waste fragments; (3) leachate collection and circulation system; (4) forced aeration system with partial air recirculation, mixing ambient air and conditioned process air; (5) heat exchanger; (6) cooling tower; (7) water (vapour condensate); (8) exhaust air treatment through biofilter or regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO). Appropriate conditions for microbial activity allow for the biodegradation of the waste placed within the bioreactor, providing the necessary heat to evaporate moisture from the waste fragments. Evaporated moisture is removed by the air convection, achieved by forced aeration. The exhaust air is going through various treatment stages that improve its drying capacity (ability to carry moisture) before it is partly re-circulated into the reactor, after being mixed with ambient air. (technology by Herhof Environmental, schematic as reported by C.A. Velis, P.J. Longhurst, G.H. Drew, R. Smith, S.J.T. Pollard, “Biodrying for mechanical–biological treatment of wastes: A review of process science and engineering”, Bioresource Technology, 2009) Schematic of biodrying box with process air circulation and dehumidification. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

156 OPTIMAL BIODRYING In biodrying, the main drying mechanicsm is convective evaporation, using heat from the aerobic biodegradation of waste components and facilitated by the mechanically supported airflow. The Moisture Content (MC) of the waste matrix is reduced through two main steps: water molecules evaporate (i.e., change phase from liquid to gaseous) from the surface of waste fragments into the surrounding air; and the evaporated water is transported through the matrix by the airflow and removed with the exhaust gasses. Limited amount of free water may seep through the waste matrix and be collected at the bottom of the biodrying reactor as leachate. Thus in biodrying, air convection and molecular diffusion are the main transport mechanisms responsible for moisture flow through the matrix. Air convection, induced by engineered airflow through the matrix, is almost exclusively responsible for the water losses. Here, air carries the water evaporated from the surface of matrix particles (free moisture) with which is in contact. Removal of water content from the waste matrix (desorption) by convective evaporation is governed by the thermodynamic equilibrium between the wet waste matrix (solid state) and the air flowing through the matrix (gaseous phase). Optimal biodrying can be achieved through effective reactor design and conditioning of the input material, combined with suitable process monitoring and control. Control can be exercised by adjusting the level of operational variables (suitable to directly manipulate), informed by process state variables (suitable to monitor and evaluate). Typical design and operational choices involve: matrix conditioning through mechanical pre-processing, e.g., comminution and/or mixing, affecting the physical properties of the matrix, such as the resistance to airflow; type of containment of waste matrix, e.g., in enclosed boxes (or ‘‘bio-cells”) (Fig. 1) or piling in tunnel windrow systems, affecting drying mechanisms including insulating effect and degree of compaction; use of mixing/agitation/rotation of the waste matrix in dynamic reactors to homogenise it, i.e., achieve uniform conditions: e.g., by rotating drum reactors (Fig. 2B) however, most of the existing commercial designs are static; aeration system design: inverted aeration systems have been tested (Fig. 2A), intending to reduce gradients experienced in prevalent unidirectional desings management of the aeration rate of the waste matrix, by control of the inlet airflow rate (Qair), to remove water vapour and offgasses and control state process parameters, such as substrate temperature and oxygen availability; external systems for controlling the psychrometric properties of the inlet air (e.g., temperature, due point, relative humidity), by cooling and dehumidifying of the process air to enhance its capacity to hold water vapour, combined with partial process air recirculation; and, residence time within the reactor, affecting the degree of completion of biochemical and physical processes. Typical residence times are in the range of 7-15 days. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

157 In biodrying, the MC can be reduced from ca
In biodrying, the MC can be reduced from ca. 35–55% w/w to 20–10% w/w ar. During aerobic biodegradation around 0.5–0.6 g of metabolic water is produced per g of VS decomposed. However, water losses during biodrying are much greater than the gains of metabolic water, resulting in a dried matrix. Mass balance of MC should include both metabolic water gains and evaporation–convection losses. Overall weight losses of 25% w/w are considered as typical. Simplified schematics of bench/pilot-scale biodrying reactor designs, among else aiming to mitigate the uneven drying of matrix. Reactor A: static enclosed hall. The central perforated pipe (C2) alternates between blowing and pulling air through the matrix, whilst the peripheral pipes (C2, C3) operate conversely. Reactor B: cylindrical rotating drum with one perforated pipe. Certain monitoring points are shown: T: temperature: 1–7 internal, out: exhaust air; P: pressure; rH: relative humidity; Q: air flowrate. BL: blower. (Schematics as reported by C.A. Velis, P.J. Longhurst, G.H. Drew, R. Smith, S.J.T. Pollard, “Biodrying for mechanical–biological treatment of wastes: A review of process science and engineering”, Bioresource Technology, 2009) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

158 Process Mass Flow Diagram
This is a general mass flow diagram often adopted in MBT plants that incorporate a biodrying reactor. Under the MBT description three variations will be presented. MC of the waste matrix is the single most important variable for evaluating the performance of biodrying processes. In waste management the MC is typically measured by gravimetric water content methods and expressed as a percentage of water for the wet weight of the material (wet basis: ar). In biodrying, the MC can be reduced from ca. 35–55% w/w to 20–10% w/w ar. During aerobic biodegradation around 0.5–0.6 g of metabolic water is produced per g of VS decomposed. However, water losses during biodrying are much greater than the gains of metabolic water, resulting in a dried matrix. Mass balance of MC should include both metabolic water gains and evaporation–convection losses. Overall weight losses of 25% w/w are considered as typical. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

159 STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS
Cellulose Selulosa merupakan polimer dari β-D-Glukosa, yang berbeda dengan pati, berorientasi dengan gugusan -CH2OH bergantian di atas dan di bawah bidang molekul selulosa, sehingga menghasilkan rantai panjang tidak bercabang. Tidak adanya rantai samping memungkinkan molekul selulosa untuk berdekatan dan membentuk struktur yang kaku. Selulosa adalah bahan struktural utama dari tumbuhan. Wood is largely cellulose, and cotton is almost pure cellulose. Cellulose can be hydrolyzed to its constituent glucose units by microorganisms that inhabit the digestive tract of termites and ruminants. Cellulose may be modified in the laboratory by treating it with nitric acid (HNO3) to replace all the hydroxyl groups with nitrate groups (-ONO2) to produce cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose or guncotton) which is an explosive component of smokeless powder. Partially nitrated cellulose, known as pyroxylin, is used in the manufacture of collodion, plastics, lacquers, and nail polish. Cellulose Gum or Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) is a chemical derivative of cellulose where some of the hydroxyl groups (-OH) are substituted with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2COOH). The properties of cellulose gum depend on the degree of substitution and the length of the cellulose chains. The degree of substitution (DS) is the number of carboxymethyl groups per glucose unit and may vary in commercial products from 0.4 to 1.5. Cellulose gum is non-toxic and becomes very viscous when combined with water. It is used as a thickener for foods and as an emulsion stabilizer in products like ice cream. Cellulose gum is also used in personal lubricants, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents and paper coatings. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

160 STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS
Hemicellulose The term "hemicellulose" is applied to the polysaccharide components of plant cell walls other than cellulose, or to polysaccharides in plant cell walls which are extractable by dilute alkaline solutions. Hemicelluloses comprise almost one-third of the carbohydrates in woody plant tissue. The chemical structure of hemicelluloses consists of long chains of a variety of pentoses, hexoses, and their corresponding uronic acids. Hemicelluloses may be found in fruit, plant stems, and grain hulls. Although hemicelluloses are not digestible, they can be fermented by yeasts and bacteria. The polysaccharides yielding pentoses on hydrolysis are called pentosans. Xylan is an example of a pentosan consisting of D-xylose units with 1β→4 linkages. Arabinoxylan Arabinoxylans are polysaccharides found in the bran of grasses and grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Arabinoxylans consist of a xylan backbone with L-arabinofuranose (L-arabinose in its 5-atom ring form) attached randomly by 1α→2 and/or 1α→3 linkages to the xylose units throughout the chain. Since xylose and arabinose are both pentoses, arabinoxylans are usually classified as pentosans. Arabinoxylans are important in the baking industry. The arabinose units bind water and produce viscous compounds that affect the consistency of dough, the retention of gas bubbles from fermentation in gluten-starch films, and the final texture of baked products. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

161 STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS
Chitin Chitin is an unbranched polymer of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is found in fungi and is the principal component of arthropod and lower animal exoskeletons, e.g., insect, crab, and shrimp shells. It may be regarded as a derivative of cellulose, in which the hydroxyl groups of the second carbon of each glucose unit have been replaced with acetamido (-NH(C=O)CH3) groups. Pectin Pectin is a polysaccharide that acts as a cementing material in the cell walls of all plant tissues. The white portion of the rind of lemons and oranges contains approximately 30% pectin. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid, which consists of chains of 300 to 1000 galacturonic acid units joined with 1α→4 linkages. The Degree of Esterification (DE) affects the gelling properties of pectin. The structure shown here has three methyl ester forms (-COOCH3) for every two carboxyl groups (-COOH), hence it is has a 60% degree of esterification, normally called a DE-60 pectin. Pectin is an important ingredient of fruit preserves, jellies, and jams. Pectin is a polymer of α-Galacturonic acid with a variable number of methyl ester groups.  …… diunduh 17/3/2012

162 STRUKTUR KARBOHIDRAT KOMPLEKS
Starch Starch is the major form of stored carbohydrate in plants. Starch is composed of a mixture of two substances: amylose, an essentially linear polysaccharide, and amylopectin, a highly branched polysaccharide. Both forms of starch are polymers of α-D-Glucose. Natural starches contain 10-20% amylose and 80-90% amylopectin. Amylose forms a colloidal dispersion in hot water (which helps to thicken gravies) whereas amylopectin is completely insoluble. Amylose molecules consist typically of 200 to 20,000 glucose units which form a helix as a result of the bond Amylopectin differs from amylose in being highly branched. Short side chains of about 30 glucose units are attached with 1α→6 linkages approximately every twenty to thirty glucose units along the chain. Amylopectin molecules may contain up to two million glucose units. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

163 DEKOMPOSISI AEROBIK DALAM BIODRYING
REAKTOR BIODRYING Biodrying reactors use a combination of engineered physical and biochemical processes. Reactor design includes a container coupled with an aeration system; containers can be either enclosed , or open tunnel-halls, or rotating drums . On the biochemical side, aerobic biodegradation of readily decomposable organic matter occurs. On the physical side, convective moisture removal is achieved through controlled, excessive aeration. Whilst the general reactor configuration and physiobiochemical phenomenon is similar to composting, the exact way in which it is operated is significantly different. Dalam proses biodrying, prinsip proses drying yang didukung dengan panas biologis akibat aktivitas mikroba dengan bantuan aerasi. Bagian utama dari panas biologis secara alami tersedia melelui degradasi aerobic bahan organic, digunakan untuk menguapkan air yang terkandung dalam matrik sampah tersebut. Ada empat tahap biologi dan kimia sebagai kunci proses dekomposisi aerob dalam biodrying : 1.Hidrolisis. Proses hidrolisis adalah proses pemecahan polimer organik kompleks dengan berat molekul yang besar menjadi monomer penyusunnya dan melarutkannya ke dalam larutan, misalnya air. 2.Acidogenesis. Proses acetogenesis adalah proses konversi senyawa monomer senyawa organik seperti glukosa, asam amino dan asam lemak, menjadi etanol dan asam asetat. Pada proses ini juga dihasilkan senyawa amonia, CO2, dan uap air. 3.Asetogenesis. Proses asetogenesis adalah proses konversi etanol dari proses acidogenesis menjadi asam asetat oleh mikroba asetogen. 4.Methanogenesis. Proses methanogenesis adalah proses konversi asam asetat yang dihasilkandari proses sebelumnya, menjadi gas methane dan karbon dioksida. DEKOMPOSISI AEROBIK DALAM BIODRYING …… diunduh 17/3/2012

164 DEKOMPOSISI AEROBIK HIDROLISIS ENSIMATIK
Dalam dekomposisi aerobik, bakteri dapat mengubah polimer rantai panjang seperti karbohidrat, rantai ini dipecah menjadi bagian yang lebih kecil, yaitu molekul monomernya, seperti glukosa. Proses memecah rantai karbon menjadi molekul-molekul yang lebih kecil dan larut dalam larutan, disebut hidrolisis. Oleh karena itu, hidrolisis senyawa yang berat molekulnya tinggi ini merupakan proses awal yang diperlukan dalam dekomposisi aerobik. Melalui hidrolisis molekul organic kompleks seperti pati, lemak, dan protein dipecah menjadi gula sederhana, asam amino, dan asam lemak. Asam asetat dan hydrogen yang dihasilkan pada proses hidrolisis dapat digunakan langsung oleh bakteri methanogen. Molekul lainnya seperti asam lemak volatile (VFA)dengan memiliki rantai panjang dari asam karboksilat harus dipecah menjadi senyawayang lebih kecil, yang dapat langsung dimanfaatkan oleh bakteri methanogen. Produk dari fermentasi VFA adalah amonia, methane disulfide, keton, benzene, hydrogen sulfide serta produk lain. HIDROLISIS ENSIMATIK The hydrolysis of polysaccharides to soluble sugars is called "saccharification". Malt made from barley is used as a source of β-amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which can be used by yeast to produce beer. Other amylase enzymes may convert starch to glucose or to oligosaccharides. Cellulose is converted to glucose or the disaccharide cellobiose by cellulases. Animals such as cows (ruminants) are able to digest cellulose because of symbiotic bacteria that produce cellulases. Sucrose. The glycoside bond is represented by the central oxygen atom, which holds the two monosaccharide units together. …… diunduh 17/3/2012

165 Asetogenesis - Methanogenesis
Tahap ke tiga dalam proses dekomposisi aerobik adalah asetogenesis. Setelah molekul sederhana hasil fermentasi secara asetogenesis lebih lanjut dicerna oleh bakteri acetogen untuk menghasilkan asam asetat serta karbon dioksid dan hydrogen. Tahap terakhir dekomposisi aerobic adalah proses biologis methanogenesis. Bakteri methanogen memanfaatkan produk dari tahapan sebelumnya dan mengubah menjadi gas methane, karbon dioksida dan air. Metana yang dihasilkan dari proses metanogenesis merupakan komponen-komponen yang membentuk sebagian besar gas yang dihasilkan oleh system. Methanogenesis merupakan proses yang sensitive terhadap pH dan terjadi antara pH 6,5 – 8. Asetogenesis - Methanogenesis Simplified schematic illustrating the methanogenic degradation of organic matter.  Circled numbers indicate the metabolic group of microbes involved in the particular stage of degradation.  1: initial hydrolysis of polymeric carbon; 2: fermentation of monomers to low molecular weight compounds; 3: aceticlastic methanogenesis and 4: CO2-reducing methanogenesis from fermentation intermediates. (http://ese.mines.edu/research_projects/biogenic_methane.html) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

166 PARAMETER OPERASIONAL BIODRYING ALIRAN UDARA MELALUI MATRIKS
Udara pengeringan (atau pengeringan penyimpanan massal) menggunakan aliran udara melalui butir sampah atau residu di bagian dalam bed untuk pengeringan dan mengawetkan sampah (Nellist, 1998). Suhu matrix sampah mencapai 5ºC di atas suhu lingkungan. Operasional kritis dan parameter terkait matrix sampah MC (moisture content), MC equilibrium, waktu penyimpanan, dan tahan tekanan terhadap aliran udara) dan udara (tingkat dan sifat aliran udara psychrometric, yaitu sifat yang mengacu pada hubungan termodinamika dan fisik antara udara dan air uap, seperti relatif humudity, temperatur, dll). ALIRAN UDARA MELALUI MATRIKS The process of evaporation is used in the arts for increasing the density of liquids by boiling down, for drying wet materials, and for cooling purposes. The vaporization of the liquid may be accomplished by adding more heat to it, or by lessening or removing the atmospheric pressure upon it. Air may be partially dried by cooling it to a low temperature. The vapor accompanying it will be condensed and thrown down as water, and when the air is afterwards warmed it will be correspondingly dry. The efficiency of a drying apparatus which uses hot air as the drying medium will depend upon several factors, as follows: 1. The dryness of the air before it is heated. 2. The degree of heat that is given to the air. 3. The amount of surface of wet material from which evaporation can readily take place. 4. The volume of the air-current. 5. The thorough distribution of the fresh dry air over the evaporating surfaces. 6. The promptness with which the moistened air is removed. Read more: diunduh 17/3/2012

167 Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge.
Ling Zhao, Wei-Mei Gu, Pin-Jing He, Li-Ming Shao Water Research (2010) Volume: 44, Issue: 20, Publisher: Elsevier Ltd, Pages: Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was % of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one. ABSTRACT diunduh 17/3/2012

168 REAKTOR BIODRYING Reaktor biodrying bertujuan untuk pre-treatment limbah pada waktu tinggal terendah dalam hal untuk menghasilkan SRF kualitas tinggi. Hal dapat ini dicapai dengan: Peningkatan kandungan energi (EC) (Adani et al., 2002) dengan memaksimalkan penghilangan kelembaban dalam matriks sampah dan melestarikan sebagian dari nilai kalor kotor  dari senyawa kimia organik melalui biodegradasi yang minimal, Memfasilitasi penggabungan dari sebagian kandungan biogenik diawetkan ke SRF; Membuat output lebih sesuai untuk pengolahan mekanik dengan mengurangi kelengketan. Biodrying membuat materi yang lebih cocok untuk penyimpanan jangka pendek dan transportasi yang baik oleh sebagian biostabilising dan mengurangi MC di bawah ambang batas yang diperlukan untuk  berlangsungnya biodegradasi Drying biomass material Reduction in the moisture content of biomass material may be required to achieve a number of purposes in energy applications. Biomass may be dried before and/or after harvesting and harvested for reduced moisture content. Any moisture content must be driven off before combustion can take place, either in advance before storage or as part of the combustion process (which then uses part of the energy of the fuel); in either case this reduces the overall energetic efficiency. Equally, gasification also requires relatively low moisture content (<10-15%). (http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=75,17305&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

169 Effect of Flow rate of air
PENGUAPAN KONVEKTIF Dalam biodrying, yang mekanisme pengeringan utama adalah konvektif penguapan, menggunakan panas dari aerobik  biodegradasi komponen limbah dan didukung aliran udara. Kandungan kelembaban (MC) dari matriks limbah dikurangi melalui dua langkah utama: molekul-molekul air menguap (yaitu, perubahan fasa dari cair ke gas) dari permukaan fragmen limbah ke udara sekitarnya, dan air menguap diangkut melalui matriks dengan aliran udara dan dihilangkan dengan saluran gas buang. Jumlah terbatas air bebas yang dapat merembes melewati matriks limbah dan dikumpulkan di bagian bawah reaktor biodrying sebagai lindi. Effect of Flow rate of air This is in part related to the concentration points above. If fresh air is moving over the substance all the time, then the concentration of the substance in the air is less likely to go up with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation. This is the result of the boundary layer at the evaporation surface decreasing with flow velocity, decreasing the diffusion distance in the stagnant layer. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporation) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

170 Dalam proses biodrying, konveksi udara dan difusi molekular adalah transportasiutama untuk mekanisme pengaliran uap air melalui matriks (Frei dkk., 2004b). Konveksi air, disebabkan oleh aliran udara yang direkayasa melalui matriks. Udara membawa air yang menguap dari permukaan partikel matriks (kelembaban bebas) dengan adanya kontak. Penghilangan kandungan air dari matriks sampah (desorpsi)dengan penguapan konvektif diatur oleh keseimbangan termodinamika antara matriks sampah basah (solid state) dan udara mengalir melalui matriks (fasa gas). Kapasitas vapour-carrying dari udara terbatas pada masing-masing T (udara) dan dicapai pada titik jenuh, setelah kondensasi yang terjadi. Pada tingkat tertentu kelembaban relatif (RH) udara (rH udara) massa uap air udara dapat terus meningkat dengan suhu. rH udara telah telah digunakan di dekat keadaan lingkungan pemodelan pengeringan untuk memperkirakan jarak dari saturasi titik inlet udara, yaitu dengan sederhana dapat dianggap sebagai pengukuran pengganti dari potensial pengeringan. FENOMENA BIO-DRYING In a typical phase diagram, the boundary between gas and liquid runs from the triple point to the critical point. Regular drying is the green arrow, while supercritical drying is the red arrow and freeze drying is the blue. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drying) …… diunduh 17/3/2012

171 ALIRAN UDARA DAN SUHU SUBSTRAT
Udara dan suhu matriks yang optimal untuk biodrying Dalam proses biodrying, tingkat pengeringan yang lebih tinggi (volume kelembaban yang dihilangkan per waktu) dicapai dengan tingkat aliran udara yang lebih tinggi. Titik penyetelan suhu substrat lebih rendah (45º C, dibandingkan dengan 55 º C dan 65 º C) mengakibatkan pengeringan yang lebih efektif . Proses biodrying paling komersial beroperasi di rentang suhu º C untuk lubang udara Tout, untuk sebagian besar waktu tinggal berlaku Tout kontrol bertahap, yang terdiri dari empat fase lebih dari satu minggu: 1.Start up dan aklimatisasi biomassa: 40 º C; 2.Degradasi: º C; 3.Sanitisation dan pengeringan: C; 4.Pendingin menuju suhu ruang 60 ºC menuju T lingkungan (Nicosia et al., 2007). ALIRAN UDARA DAN SUHU SUBSTRAT …… diunduh 17/3/2012

172 Aktivitas mikroba Proses mikroba selama biodrying harus sesuai untuk memanfaatkan dari panasyang diperlukan untuk pengeringan yang efektif, bersama dengan biodegradasisubstrat limbah yang terbatas. Suhu substrat adalah faktor yang paling penting yang mempengaruhi mikroba pertumbuhan (Miller, 1996), karena antara lain, menyediakan kondisi ideal untuk proliferasi jenis tertentu mikro organisme, misalnya, mesofilik atau termofilik …… diunduh 17/3/2012

173 AKTIVITAS MIKROBA DALAM BIODRYING
Selama biodrying dari matriks kandungan kelembaban tinggi lumpur pulp dankertas, Roy dkk. (2006) mengidentifikasi tiga tahap pengeringan yang terpisah, yang berkorelasi dengan periode pertumbuhan mikroba: 1.Aklimatisasi mikroba mengakibatkan peningkatan eksponensial tingkat pengeringan; 2.Penurunan eksponensial dari tingkat pengeringan karena ketersediaan nutrisitidak cukup untuk konsumsi mikroba, dan 3. Pengeringan konstan, sesuai dengan fluktuasi Q Udara tersebut. Jika dinamis serupa berlaku untuk substrat kering yang banyak sisa MSW itu akan menunjukkan bahwa setelah beberapa titik biodrying kurang tergantung pada aktivitasmikroba, semakin terhambat oleh stres air, menjadi bukan hanya proses fisik (udara konveksi). Hal ini jelas tidak akan mempengaruhi keseimbangan energidari proses. MIKROBA - BIODRYING …… diunduh 17/3/2012

174 “Sampah di kota Malang 400 ton perhari”
 Nanda Gayuk Candy ”  Pengelolaan Sampah Kota dalam Rangka Pencapaian Pembangunan Millenium (MDGs) . ”.(online)http://lifestyle.kompasiana.com/urban/ /11/pengelolaan-sampah-kota-dalam-rangka-pencapaian-pembangunan-millenium-mdgs/, diakses 16 januari 2012Suwarno, 2011. “Sampah di kota Malang 400 ton perhari” (diakses, 20 janiari 2012) Velis C.A., Longhurst P.J.t, Drew G.H. and Smith R, Pollard S.J.T “Biodryingfor mechanical-biological treatment of wastes: a review of process science andengineering” Volume 100. Bioresource Technology, Cranfield University. Mihaela Negoi Ramona, Ragazzi Marco, Apostol Tiberiu, Cristina Rada Elena,Marculescu Cosmin Bio-Drying Of Romanian Municipal Solid Waste: AnAnalysis Of Its Viability. Vol. 71.-Haug, R.T., The practical handbook of compost engineering, Boca Raton USA:CRC Press, Lewis Publishers. Frei, K.M., Stuart, P.R., Cameron, D., Novel drying process using forcedaeration through a porous biomass matrix. Finland : Dry. Technol. …… diunduh 17/3/2012


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