2Types of Bills Bills Resolutions REMEMBER A BILL IS A LAW THAT HAS NOT YET BEEN APPROVED AND MAY NEVER BE APPROVED.BillsPrivate Bills – A bill that concerns an individual or certain people and/or places.Public Bills – A bill that applie to the entire nation and are usually about taxation, civil rights, or national security.ResolutionsResolution – A formal statement approved by the legislature usually expressing opinions, creating committees, or authorizing ceremonies.Joint Resolutions – Can become law if approved by the President and focus on constitutional amendments, allocating money, or correcting bills already approved.
3Write the Bill Why bills are written; Any Representative can write a bill and submit it to Clerk of the House or a Senator can simply announce it on the Senate floorWhy bills are written;Address issues facing the countryAddress issues facing the representatives state or districtAdvance goals laid out in representatives platform they were elected onIn response to their constituent's letters, s, protests, etc.In response to special interest groups/lobbyistsBecause they think it is a good ideaREMEMBER – ANY BILL THAT SPENDS OR RAISES MONEY/TAXES MUST START IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
4Naming your Bill!After submitting a bill it is given a title and a number to identify it.Those submitted to the House are labeled with H.R. and a number and those submitted to the Senate are labeled with an S and a numberS.117
5CommitteesNEXT THE BILL IS SUBMITTED TO THE COMMITTEE THAT SEEMS BEST FIT TO DEAL WITH IT.There are committees in both the House of Representatives and in the Senate.17 committees in the Senate(not including Sub-Committees)20 committees in the House or Representatives (not including Sub-Committees)Majority party chairs the committee and has majority of members.Chair controls committee agenda.
6Committee ActionsBill is introduced by anyone in the House or Senate and sent to appropriate committee.Chairperson decides which bills to researchSubmitted to sub-committee for researchPublic Hearing – Presentation of bill to committee for opinions.Mark-up Session – Amendments are introduced and accepted with majority vote.Majority Vote – Vote is taken to Report (submit the bill to House) or table it. (send it back for further discussions if deemed necessary)Clean Bill – New bill made including all of the amendments if too many to make bill unrecognizable.Committee Report – Report on the purpose and scope of the bill and the reason they feel it should be approved.
7House of Representatives Rules Committee – Decides when bills will be discussed if everConsideration – Debates between proponents and opponent of the bills reported House.Amendments – Can be introduced and voted on.Vote to Recommit – Sends bill back to the committee of origination.Final Passage Vote – Majority vote passes the bill onto the Senate.Without majority bill goes back to House debate for additional amendments or vote to recommit.
8Majority vote approving Bill From a Bill To a LawVoted Down By SenateMajority vote approving BillPresidential Veto(2/3 vote House and Senate to override)Majority vote approving BillBecomes LawPresidential ApprovalRuled Unconstitutional
9SenateConsideration – Debates between proponents and opponent of the bills passed in the House.Amendments – Can be introduced and voted on.Any bills that are amended are sent back to the House for vote of approvalRiders – Amendments unrelated to bill that may benefit constituents.Filibuster – Talking a bill to death until sponsor withdraws.Cloture – Limits discussion to one hour per Senator.Final Passage Vote – Majority vote passes the bill onto the President for signature into law or veto.Without majority bill goes back to Senate debate for additional amendments.
10Majority vote approving Bill From a Bill To a LawVoted Down By SenateMajority vote approving BillPresidential Veto(2/3 vote House and Senate to override)Majority vote approving BillBecomes LawPresidential ApprovalRuled Unconstitutional
11Voting on the BillWhen discussion is completed on a bill they may then vote on whether it should be sent to the other house or president for approval.Voice Vote– Those in favor say “Yea” and those opposed say “No”Standing Vote– Those in favor stand and then those opposed standElectronic Vote – Has replaced these types in the HouseRoll-call Vote – Traditional voting system in Senate where names and votes are recorded.
12The President Signs bill into law Allows to pass into law without signatureIf not signed or vetoed within 10 days it becomes a lawPocket Veto – If after 10 days the Congress is not in session then it is officially vetoed.VetoSent back to House for revote or amendments2/3 approval vote in House and Senate overrides presidential veto making it law.
13Majority vote approving Bill From a Bill To a LawVoted Down By SenateMajority vote approving BillPresidential Veto(2/3 vote House and Senate to override)Majority vote approving BillBecomes LawPresidential ApprovalRuled Unconstitutional
14Supreme Court Rules on whether a law is constitutional Can also interpret laws without referring to congressRelies on other branches of government to enforce their rulingsCan only decide on the constitutionality of a law if it is brought to the courts attention in a specific case.