Presentation on theme: "How A Bill Becomes A Law An educational journey behind the scenes of: “I’m Just a Bill”"— Presentation transcript:
How A Bill Becomes A Law An educational journey behind the scenes of: “I’m Just a Bill”
Types of Bills and Resolutions Bills – any proposed law presented in the House or the Senate. Public Bill – Any bill that will affect the entire nation. i.e. any tax cut Private Bill – Any bill that applies to certain people or places. Resolutions – any measure that concerns an individual chamber of Congress. i.e. to add a new rule to their procedures
Joint Resolution – Any measure that carries the force of law but is temporary. They are also used to propose constitutional amendments. Concurrent Resolution – Any measure that requires the House and Senate to act jointly. Used often to state a position. i.e. A concurrent resolution was used to allow the President to wage a war against Iraq. Rider – A non related addition to a resolution. It cannot pass on its own merit
The Bill is Presented in the House The author of the proposed bill presents the bill to the House clerk. The clerk reads the title and assigns the bill a number.
The Proposed Bill in the House Once the bill has been entered into the record, the Speaker of the House sends the bill to the correct standing committee The Chairman of the Committee sends the bill to a subcommittee for further investigation After the subcommittee investigates, the full committee makes the final decision if the bill should be sent for a final vote.
Decisions of the Committee 1. Report the bill favorably to the full House 2. Refuse to report the bill to the House (pigeonholed) 3. Report the bill in an amended form 4. Report the bill with an unfavorable recommendation 5. Report a committee bill – an entirely new bill If the committee decides to report the bill favorably, the bill is sent to the House Rules Committee
The Bill reaches the House Floor Minor Bills: No debate then voted by the members of the House. Quorum for business is 218 members Major Bills: The House creates the Committee of the Whole This is the entire House acting as a committee Quorum for business is 100 Members Takes less time Debate on all sections of the Bill Final vote on the bill by all members of the House 51% or 218 out of 435 members required
The Bill in the Senate Once the bill has been approved by the House of Representatives, it is sent to the Senate The steps from the House are then repeated in the Senate
Rules for Debate Debate can continue without any limit. Called a Filibuster – “To talk a bill to death” Those who oppose the bill can talk until the bill has been amended or dropped. Cloture – A vote that ends a filibuster. Requires 60 votes
The Conference Committee Once both houses have passed their versions of a proposed bill, a Conference Committee must be formed to iron out the differences The identical versions of the bill must be sent back to the houses for a final vote. A simple majority is needed in both houses to send the proposed bill to the President
The President Decides Choice #1 The President signs the bill. It becomes a law. Choice #2 The President does nothing. After 10 days it becomes law. For both of these choices, the bill will become law
Other Presidential Decisions Choice #3 The President can VETO the bill. He must send it back to Congress with his reason for the VETO Choice #4 POCKET VETO – Only if Congress has less than 10 days in its term. Any business that is not completed by the end of the session does not become law. Congressional Override – Congress can override a VETO with 2/3 vote of BOTH HOUSES
The Shorthand Version 1. The bill is presented in the House 2. The bill is sent to the appropriate committee 3. The committee sends the bill to a subcommittee 4. The subcommittee sends the bill back to the full committee
Shorthand Version Continued 5. The full committee votes on the bill and sends the bill to the House Rules Committee 6. The full House votes on the bill 7. The bill is sent to the Senate for consideration 8. The bill follows the same process in the Senate
More of the shorthand version 9. There is NO Rules Committee in the Senate 10. Once the bill is approved it goes to conference committee 11. The Final version is approved by both houses with 51% majority 12. Bill is sent to the President for final approval