2 HYDROLOGY-the study of the distribution and movement of water on Eartha There are five processes by which water moves throughout each of the earth’s spheresa condensationa precipitationa infiltrationa runoffa evapo-transpiration
3 Water Properties Strong hydrogen bonds Temperature changes slowly (high heat capacity)High boiling and evaporation pointUniversal solventFilters harmful UV radiationExpands when it freezes
4 HYDROSPHERE 75% of Earth is covered by water 97% of all water is in the Ocean3% of all water is freshwaterFresh water distribution:Ice: %Groundwater: 1.7%Surface Fresh Water: %Atmosphere and soil: %
5 AQUATIC BIOMES TWO BROAD CATEGORIES: 1. MARINE/SALT WATER (Ex. OCEANS, ESTUARIES)2. FRESHWATER(Ex. RIVERS, LAKES, WETLANDS)PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS USED TO CATEGORIZE INCLUDE:SALINITY, DEPTH, WATER FLOW
6 SALINITY– salt (sodium chloride) Salinity levels are written in parts per thousand (ppt)*ocean salinity = 35 ppt (3.5% salt content)(is affected by rainfall, evaporation, runoff, depth)*freshwater is less than .5 ppt*brackish water has between .5 – 17 pptNOTE: when salt water cools and freezes, it gets denser with salt and then it sinks. Ocean salinity increases with depth.
7 OCEANS - FACTS **ALL THE OCEANS ARE CONNECTED** ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEANARCTIC OCEANSOUTHERN OCEANINDIAN OCEAN*The largest ocean is the Pacific*The deepest part of the Pacific isat the bottom of the Mariana Trench*The saltiest ocean is the North Atlantic (3.7 ppt)*The salt comes from rocks & underwater volcanic eruptions
8 OCEAN – GLOBAL TEMPERUTURE REGULATOR *the function of the oceans is to absorb sunlight energy which regulates temperatures in the Earth’s atmosphere(without oceans, the temperatures would be too extreme for life)*ocean temperatures affect climate and wind patterns*currents that circulate warm waters moderate the climate ofnorthern lands EX. British isles are warmed by the Gulf Stream*ocean evaporation accounts for most of the Earth’s precipitation
9 OCEAN – ZONATION by light & temperature Pelagic = all open ocean regionNeritic = from low tide to edge of continental shelf, shallow depth to 650 ft,well oxygenated, low pressure, lots of lightOceanic = open sea beyond continental shelfEpelagic / Photic = upper layer, depth (to 200 m) exposed to sunlight forphotosynthesis, warmest region, highest level of DO (dissolved oxygen)Bathyal /Disphotic = dimly lit zone, not enough for photosynthesisAbyssal zone / Aphotic = deep area, no sunlight, no photosynthesis, extremelycold, very low DO, high pressure, high level of nutrients fromdecaying organismsBenthic = lowest level, ocean floor
11 OCEAN – TEMPERATURE ZONES Surface zone = top layer , 300 meters deep, warmed by sunThermocline = 300 m to 700 m, temperature falls rapidly with depthDeep zone = below thermocline to ocean bottom, dark and cold
12 OCEAN – INTERTIDAL ZONE COASTLINE BETWEEN HIGH TIDE & LOW TIDEOrganisms here are exposed to sunlight, high temperatures and desiccation during low tideOrganisms are adapted to wavesEx. Barnacles, algae, mussels, crabs, sea stars
13 OCEAN CURRENTS*Surface currents are steam-like movements of water near the surface driven by wind patterns-can be warm or cold (do not mix)*Deep currents are steam-like movements of water that flow very slowly along ocean floor* driven by difference in density due to temperature and salinity (Denser, saltier water sinks and less dense water rises)
14 OCEAN CIRCULATION https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UuGrBhK2c7U *The Ocean Conveyor Belt is driven by thermo-haline currents*Gulf Stream carries warm Caribbean water to North Europe(when it gets to Iceland, it cools, becomes denser and saltier, then sinks creating a powerful, southbound current to Antarctica)*Cold bottom waters warm and rise in Pacific & Indian oceansGYRES = high vortex currents caused byCorioliseffect
15 OCEANS - UPWELLING*where prevailing winds from Coriolis effect push warmer, nutrient poor surface water away from coastline*this surface water is replaced by cooler, nutrient rich, deeper waters (deeper waters have high levels of nitrates and phosphates that come from decomposition and sinking of surface waters plankton*upwellings provide nutrient supply for photic regions*Densest water will be at 4 ° C, when ice melts , surface water will sink, bottom water will move to surface overturning oxygen to bottom and nutrients to top
16 Currents, Waves & Shorelines a currents carried on the surface of the water are called wavesa when waves meet the land shorelines are createda the interaction between the sea and the land causes some erosion of the land which creates sedimenta sediment is carried into the ocean from the waves
17 Fresh Water—RiversWhat is a river?A large channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope—made of many streams that come together.
18 Fresh Water — Lakes What is a lake? A body of water of considerable size contained on a body of land.
20 Lakes are divided into three categories dystrophic lakeslow food valuefull of soil particleswater is usually brownoligotrophic lakeslake nourishmentvery clear waterMESOTROPHIC LAKESSomewhat Clear waterMedium level of nutrientsHas beds of submerged plantseutrophic lakeswell nourishedintense birdlifelots of plankton
21 POND STRATIFICATIONLittoral Zone= shallow area of soil and water near shore where algae & plants grow, most photosynthesis occurs hereLimnetic zone= open water, floating algae called phytoplankton found here, extends as deep as sunlight can penetrateProfundal Zone= in deeper lakes, below Limnetic, no sunlight , no photosynthesis, bacteria decompose the detritus consuming oxygenBenthic Zone= muddy bottom of lake/pond
22 Other Surface Waters What is a wetland? An area where the water table is at, near or above the land surface long enough during the year to support adapted plant growth.
23 Other Surface Waters What are the types of wetlands? Swamps, bogs, and marshesSwamp: a wetland dominated by treesBogs: a wetland dominated by peat mossMarshes: a wetland dominated by grasses
24 Fresh Water --Groundwater The water found in cracks and pores in sand, gravel and rocks below the earth’s surface.zone of aeration= layer closest to the soils surfaceZone of saturation= under surface layer (all open spaces fill with water)
25 Additional Vocabulary Artesian Well – a well in which water rises because of pressure within aquifer.Reservoir – a lake that stores water for human use.Tributary-a stream feeding a larger stream or a lake
26 The Water Tablesaturated zone: the subsurface zone in which all rock openings are filled with waterwater table: the upper surface of the zone of saturationperched water table: the top of a body of ground water separated from the main water table beneath it by a zone that is not saturated
27 The Movement of Ground Water most ground water moves relatively slowly through rock undergroundbecause it moves in response to differences in water pressure and elevation, water within the upper part of the saturated zone tends to move downward following the slope of the water tableMovement of ground water beneath a sloping water table in uniformly permeablerock. Near the surface the ground water tends to flow parallel to the sloping water table
28 Aquiferaquifer: a body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move easilygood aquifers include sandstone, conglomerate, well-joined limestone, bodies of sand and gravel, and some fragmental or fractured volcanic rocks such as columnar basalt
29 Aquifers (cont.)unconfined aquifer: a partially filed aquifer exposed to the land surface and marked by a rising and falling water tableconfined aquifer (artesian aquifer): an aquifer completely filled with pressurized water and separated from the land surface by a relatively impermeable confining bed, such as shale
30 Fresh Water —StreamsWhat is a stream?A small channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope—made of small gullies.
31 Springs and Streamsspring: a place where water flows naturally from rock onto the land surfacesome springs discharge where the water table intersects the land surface, but they also occur where water flows out from caverns or along fractures, faults, or rock contacts that come to the surfaceWater enters caves along jointsin limestone and exits as springsat the mouths of cavesSprings can form along faultswhen permeable rock has beenmoved against less permeable rock.Arrows show relative motionalong faultWater moves along fractures incrystalline rock and forms springswhere the fractures intersect theland surfaceSprings form at the contact betweena permeable rock such as sandstoneand an underlying less permeable rocksuch as shale