Presentation on theme: "Simón Bolívar & José de San Martín Gabriela Ampuño Isabella Escala Luis Sierra Sergio Arboleda."— Presentation transcript:
Simón Bolívar & José de San Martín Gabriela Ampuño Isabella Escala Luis Sierra Sergio Arboleda
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios was a South American nationalist and general. Born in Caracas, Venezuela into an aristocratic family, and educated by different tutors, among them Simón Rodríguez.
Following the death of his parents, he went to Spain in 1799. He married María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alayza in 1802. Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807. The Caracas junta declared its independence in 1810, and Bolívar was sent to England on a diplomatic mission.
Bolívar returned to Venezuela and in July 1812, he flee to Cartagena de Indias. Bolívar captured Caracas in 1813 and assumed dictatorship. He then captured Bogotá in 1814. In 1816, with Haitian help, Bolívar returned to the fight, landing in Venezuela and capturing Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar).
A victory at Boyacá in 1819 added Colombia to the territories free of Spanish control, and in December, he created Gran Colombia with himself as president. In 1822 he took over Peru, which had been partially liberated by José de San Martín in July 1821. Bolívar was named president on September 10 and, assisted by Antonio José de Sucre, he defeated the Spanish in August 1824 at Junín.
In August 1825, the Republic of Bolivia was created in honor of Bolívar. But by 1827, the fragile South American coalition collapsed. Bolívar resigned his presidency in 1828 and died from tuberculosis on December 17, 1830.
Important fact It should be added that, at one period, Bolívar had a dream of uniting all South American, Central American and Caribbean countries and turning them into a single, economically independent country, which he had planned to name “The United States of Latin America.” There was a meeting by Latin American presidents and governors to approve or disapprove of Bolívar's plan, but it was decided not to go through with the plan by only one vote.
José de San Martín
Born in Yapeyu, in the Argentine province of Corrientes, on February 25th 1778. His parents were Don Juan de San Martin and Doña Gregoria Matorras. In 1786 he is transferred to Spain and, in 1789, he initiates his military career.
In 1811 he resigns his military career and embarks in a sail ship from England to Buenos Aires, where he arrives the 9 of March of 1812. The independent government of Buenos Aires accepts his services and orders him to create a cavalry corps (Mounted Grenadiers). In that same year he married Maria Remedies de Escalada.
On February 3rd, 1813, the Mounted Grenadiers won their first combat against the Spanish disembarkation army. In the year 1816, because of his insistence, the declaration of the independence from the rule of Spain of the Provincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata (Argentina), was acclaimed in that congress the 9 of July of that year.
In January of 1817 the crossing of the army begins. They were around 4000 men of infantry, cavalry and artillery and carried provisions for a month. On February 12, 1817 few days after the passage of the Andes, the army wins the battle of Chacabuco and some days after, the Liberator enters the city of Santiago de Chile.
On April 5 th, the United Argentine-Chilean defeat the Spanish and ended their efforts to dominate Chile. In the month of July, 1821, San Martin enters triumphant to the city of Lima, proclaims independence, and he is designated Protective of Peru.
On July 26th, 1822 San Martin met with Simon Bolivar in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The two liberators of South America, north and south. They hold secret talks for hours. San Martin returned to Lima at night. On September 20th, he embarked for Chile and crosses the Andes to Mendoza.
On august 3, 1823 his wife dies in Buenos Aires. The 10 of February of 1824, displeased by the civil wars in the Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata, he embarked for France with his little daughter, Mercedes. There he lived until his death, on August 17, 1850.