Presentation on theme: "Alan Mayhew JMWEN and University of Sussex Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 1 From Northern Dimension to Eastern Partnership: Aleksanteri."— Presentation transcript:
Alan Mayhew JMWEN and University of Sussex Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 1 From Northern Dimension to Eastern Partnership: Aleksanteri Institute, University of Helsinki, 10.9.2009 The Eastern Partnership
EU Policy and Eastern Europe Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 2 EU policy towards Eastern Europe developed only after the fifth enlargement had been completed PCA in the 1990s with former states of the Soviet Union (ex- Baltics) but no real ambition Late realisation of the impact of enlargement on relations with Eastern Europe Enlargement brought countries with vital Eastern European interests into the Union
European Neighbourhood Policy Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 3 ENP was reaction to the impact of enlargement on Eastern Europe Fears that the EU might begin to neglect the Mediterranean forced inclusion of Barcelona process countries in ENP Basic offer: a share in the internal market of the Union and closer political cooperation in return for implementation of key areas of EU regulation in ENP countries and adoption of EU fundamental values
Problems of ENP Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 4 ENP included countries with diverse structures and interests at very different levels of development Combined Eastern European countries with a perspective of accession to the EU (article 49 EU Treaty) with Med countries without this perspective Little real support from EE countries like Ukraine which did not see a real advantage ENP was uneasy compromise between Southern Member States inc. France and those interested in Eastern Europe
Demise of ENP Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 5 Early demand for Eastern Policy from new EU states – Poland, Slovakia, Lithuania etc Sarkozy’s Union for the Mediterranean created the space for a new policy towards the East Polish – Swedish initiative in 2008 – idea adopted by European Council which asked Commission to make a proposal Georgia crisis accelerated EaP adoption Policy adopted end 2008 and ENP launched in spring 2009 These two new policies effectively empty ENP of any real content.
What does the Eastern Partnership offer? Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 6 Bilateral: All EP states are offered Association Agreements when ready: includes deep and comprehensive free trade agreement (DCFTA) Comprehensive institution building programmes Visa facilitation and readmission Energy security Multilateral: Thematic platforms Flagship initiatives Multi-lateral institutional structures Finance
Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 7 Finance proposed is very limited during current financial perspective 2007-13: – ENPI funding proposed to be raised from €450 Million (2008) to €785 Million (2013); i.e. additional €350 million of fresh funds – ENPI Regional Programme refocused to support EaP multilateral dimension: €250 million under the current ENPI envelope to be devoted to EaP initiatives Additional funding from IFIs and EIB encouraged: Neighbourhood Investment Facility to trigger major investments 2014-2020 financial framework liable to be tight!
Problems faced by EaP implementation in Eastern Europe Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 8 Partner states are also diverse and do not have same ambition vis-a-vis EU or same interests Institutional and governance reform frequently required to ensure implementation of EU acquis EaP does not offer enough to EaP countries to persuade them to adopt EU regulations; esp. true of the finance available
Problems faced by EaP in the EU Jean Monnet Wider Europe Network, Helsink September 2009 9 General lack of interest faced with other major problems Worries by some member states that EaP could lead to further EU enlargement Demand of southern member states to ensure that supremacy in financing of the south remains: overall lack of enthusiasm for higher budgets to finance third countries at a time of rising Govt. Deficits and debt Multi-lateral EaP depends on enthusiasm of a few EU supporters