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The Four Methods of Discourse Descriptive Narrative Expository Persuasive.

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Presentation on theme: "The Four Methods of Discourse Descriptive Narrative Expository Persuasive."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Four Methods of Discourse Descriptive Narrative Expository Persuasive


4 Descriptive This form of writing requires specific information and sensory details along with “other related details.” Effective description does the following: –Creates a mood through word choice and length –Uses sensory language, adjectives, adverbs, action verbs, figurative language

5 Descriptive Requirements 1.INTERESTING BEGINNING Strategies for interesting beginnings: -use a sound device -begin with a famous quotation -quote someone else -give background information -open with a strong opinion -preview specific details -begin generally and move to specific

6 Good Descriptive Elements 2. Specific details 3.Check your sentence beginnings according to the ABC Rule 4.Try beginning sentences with subordinate conjunctions 5.Do you have at least one of each of the four types of sentence? 6.Do you have an inverted sentence? 7.Do you have sentences with a dash, colon, or semi-colon? 8.Do you use transition words to link your paragraphs?


8 Writing in the Narrative Mode Tell about an event or an action that occurs over time. --Include specific details that move the event through time and “breathe life” into the event. --Use transition words to show this movement over time. -- Chronological order is generally most appropriate for the organizational strategy. -- The “story” may be true or imagined. -- Combine, omit, summarize, or embellish events.

9 Continued… -- This mode reinforces the understanding of character, setting and plot. -- Use description and dialogue to enhance the storytelling. -- Often the last event serves as the ending for the narrative.

10 Narrative Ingredients Characters Plot Setting (specific TIME and PLACE) Dialogue Strong Verbs Specific Details Metaphorical language Interesting beginning Use of transition words Chronological development

11 First Paragraph--Introduction I. FIRST PARAGRAPH The Introduction Remember that the writer wants to “grab” the attention of the audience. Try these techniques: -Give an example that will lead to the topic - Start with an anecdote -Begin with a quotation - Use a sound device - Start with a feeling or sensory experience -Start with a flashback

12 First Paragraph Cont. Establish SETTING and CHARACTERS Begin developing the story or plot in this first paragraph with an interesting beginning and one of the following questions: –Who? –What? –Where? –Why?

13 Second Paragraph Describe the first adventure—exactly what happened A. Detail supporting the event B. Second detail C. Third detail

14 Third Paragraph Describe the second adventure in chronological order. The conflict should have been established by now. A. Detail supporting the event B. Second detail C. Third detail

15 Fourth Paragraph Describe the third adventure in chronological order. A. Detail supporting the event: B. Second detail: C. Third detail:

16 Fifth Paragraph A.Final event in the story B.Conflict Resolution C.Possible surprise ending D.Clincher ending


18 Writing in the Persuasive Mode State an opinion clearly and take a definitive stand Support the opinion with convincing details, reasons, examples Brainstorm in the pre-writing state to determine specific reasons which are logical and convincing Students may try to 1.) identify five reasons which might convince an audience 2.) from those five reasons develop fully the three best reasons

19 Persuasive Ingredients One sided argument (for or against) A beginning with a thesis Three paragraphs—each dealing with one specific argument Specific details to support the arguments An organizational plan Use of transition words Clarity An effective concluding paragraph

20 Persuasive Frame Opening paragraph—what is your main argument? Arguments—what is the most important point that you want to make? What supporting evidence can you add? What details can you add to the supporting evidence? Continue as above for the other points that you want to make Conclusion—remind readers what your main idea is and ask them to support you


22 Writing in the Expository Mode Explain or inform in this mode Expository writing needs a topic sentence Supporting sentences elaborate A typical conclusion restates or summarizes the main idea in the expository paper Students need examples in order to “see” how expository writing communicates tone through the main idea sentence The conclusion completes the essay and drives the point home

23 Writing in the Expository Mode Cont. Limit the subject in some cases—ask “What aspect of the subject do I want to explain?” or, “How can I express the main idea of my essay in one sentence?” Determine the types of details to be used: facts, examples, reasons, incidents, steps in a process, similarities/ differences

24 Writing in the Expository Mode Cont. The organizational plan is typically one of these: order of importance, comparison/ contrast, spatial, developmental order, chronological order Use transition between details; show the relationship between details.

25 Expository Ingredients Strong verbs A beginning with a thesis Three separate paragraphs, each paragraph dealing with one specific reason Specific details to support reasons An organizational plan Clarity—use of transition words An effective concluding paragraph

26 Concluding Sentence: Controlling Idea: First IdeaSecond Idea Third Idea

27 The information contained in this presentation was obtained from Ruth Hooks during her workshop titled, Teaching Writing.

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