Presentation on theme: "New Senior Secondary (NSS) Understanding and Interpreting the Curriculum Series: English Language for English Teachers – the senior secondary English."— Presentation transcript:
1 New Senior Secondary (NSS) Understanding and Interpreting the Curriculum Series: English Language for English Teachers – the senior secondary English Language curriculum framework and strategies for planning and implementation (Refreshed)English Language Education SectionCurriculum Development InstituteEducation Bureau
2 How is the English language curriculum planned in your school? What do you expect your students to achieve in terms of English language learning after completing S6?
3 By the end of the workshop, you will have a better understanding of the design and the features of the three-year senior secondary English Language curriculum;explored strategies for curriculum planning and implementation; anddesigned task-based activities for senior secondary students.
4 Planning the New Senior Secondary English Language Curriculum at Classroom Level Are teachers using skills books/textbooks? No matter what banding, what schools, the Eng proficiency of students, teachers should know their students’ previous learning experiences, building on their strengths.
5 The English Language Curriculum Diagrammatic Representation of the English Language Curriculum FrameworkThe English Language CurriculumStrandsInterpersonalKnowledgeExperienceLearning Objectives: Forms and FunctionsSkills and StrategiesAttitudes9 Generic SkillsValues and AttitudesFlexible and Diversified Modes ofCurriculum Planning+Effective Learning, Teaching and AssessmentThis slide shows the framework of the English Language curriculum, which is an open and flexible one.The subject target is supported by three interrelated Strands: Knowledge, Interpersonal and Experience. Strands define the general purposes of learning English and serve as the content organizers of the curriculum. Few authentic situations of language use involve only one of the Strands.The Learning Targets for each Strand are divided into 4 Key Stages. They define more clearly and specifically how learners progress from one key stage to another.The Learning Objectives set out more explicitly what students learn and use at KS1 & KS2.Overall Aims and Learning Targets ofEnglish Language
6 Involves learners in thinking and doing Features of a TaskContextPurposeInvolves learners in thinking and doingRequires learners to draw upon a framework of knowledge and skillsHow to apply TBL in reading and writing? How to teaching a reading text?Pre-readingWhile-readingPost-readingProduct
7 Task-based approach Provides contexts for: integrated use of language skillsmeaningful and purposeful use of English for communicationFacilitates effective grammar and vocabulary learning and teachingUses learning and teaching resources of a variety of text-typesPromotes a learner-centred approach
8 Adopting a Task-based Approach in Lesson Design Heritage Conservation ModuleCultures of the WorldUnitHeritage ConservationTask 1Reading an from the teacher-in-charge of the HK’s Heritage ExcursionTask 2Listening to an interview with the Executive Secretary of the Antiquities and Monuments OfficeTask 3Studying some leaflets about the heritage sites in HKTask 4Making recommendations for the Heritage TourFinal TaskWriting a proposal and designing a poster for the Heritage TourAdapted from Enhancing English Vocabulary Learning and Teaching at Secondary Level (2012), pp
9 2013 HKDSE Reading Paper (Part A, Compulsory) A feature article about restoring the original colours of theTerra-cotta warriors through the use of science and technology
10 Questions requiring general reading skills Candidates are required to5. According to paragraph 3, whatwere the farmers doing whenthey first discovered the terra-cottawarriors?11. According to paragraph 5, whydid the colours of the warriors notsurvive?24. Match the 6 given sub-headingsto the paragraphs in the article.25. The text is (option C) a featurearticle.
11 Questions requiring more advanced interpretation of the text Candidates are required to1. What is the tone in paragraph 1?Excited (Option B)2. What is special about theearthen pit (line 6)?3.What is ‘ancient jigsaw puzzle’?9. What does ‘Qin Shi HuangDi packed a lot into his earthlyreign’ (line 38-39) tell us aboutthe first emperor?12. In line 61, the writer mentionsboiling an egg to show howvibrant pieces of history are lostin a short period of time.
12 Effective strategies to enhance the interface Understand students’ previous learning and future learning needsBuilding on the strengths of students and considering their future learning needs, plan for a Junior Secondary English Language curriculum to gear students towards the learning targets and objectives in the English Language curriculumFocus on literacy development today: from 04 curriculum reform, literacy development has been very importantShould understand students’ previous learning experiences and the expectation of students shouldn’t be too low
13 Learning Experience across key stages PrimaryExposure to a range of text typesIncorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language CurriculumDevelopment of basic language skills and strategiesJuniorSecondaryExposure to a wide range of print and non-print textsExtensive reading and viewingFurther development of language skills and strategiesSeniorSecondaryExposure to a widened range of more complex text typesSchool-based Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to texts Comprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts
14 Learning Experience across key stages PrimaryExposure to a range of text typesIncorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language CurriculumDevelopment of basic language skills and strategiesJuniorSecondaryExposure to a wide range of print and non-print textsExtensive reading and viewingFurther development of language skills and strategiesSeniorSecondaryExposure to a widened range of more complex text typesSchool-based Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to textsComprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts
15 Text types Across Different Key stages Examples of Text Types for Key Stage 2Examples of Text Types for Key Stage 3Examples of Text Types for Key Stage 4• Plays• Announcements• Informational reports• Maps and legends• News / Weather reports• Pamphlets• s• Formal letters• Discussions• Telephone conversations• Procedures• Recipes• Book reviews/reports• Film reviews• Itineraries• Manuals• Newspaper articles• Short novels• Short stories• Interviews• Presentations• Editorials• Debates• Documentaries• Essays• Feature articles• Films• Novels• Minutes• Public speeches• Proposals• ResumesTSome text-types are active, some passive.Text-types taught in KS1-3 should be revisited.Multi modal texts?Australian model: text-type based read more effectively and write better
16 Learning Experience across key stages PrimaryExposure to a range of text typesIncorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language CurriculumDevelopment of basic language skills and strategiesJuniorSecondaryExposure to a wide range of print and non-print textsExtensive reading and viewingFurther development of language skills and strategiesSeniorSecondaryExposure to a widened range of more complex text typesSchool-based Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to texts Comprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts
17 Related topics Variety of text types Level of difficulty GENERAL Considerations in Planning for Reading Programmes at THE Secondary LevelRelated topicsVariety of text typesLevel of difficultyIntegrating reading into regular English Language lessons with the other language skills of listening, speaking and writing17
18 Reading across the Curriculum To promote reading as a means to help learners seek information, develop thinking skills, enrich knowledge, enhance language proficiency and broaden perspectives To promote the development of functional reading skills to help learners relate English Language learning to daily life in real world To encourage extensive reading of a wide variety of resource materials with different subject content to enhance learningEnglish Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) 2007
19 Topic: Earth READING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Extended Reading:The Earth(An information book)Discover and Experience(A government pamphlet – Electrical & Mechanical Services Department)Topic: EarthInfo. about the Earth and environment protectionCause-and-effect relationshipTextbook:The Beautiful PlanetAdjectives todescribe the EarthGrammar items and structures, skills development…Reading Skills & StrategiesText structure ofexplanation textWriting an article on the use of alternative energy sources for generating electricity
20 Learning Experiences across key stages PrimaryExposure to a range of text typesIncorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language CurriculumDevelopment of basic language skills and strategiesJuniorSecondaryExposure to a wide range of print and non-print textsExtensive reading and viewingFurther development of language skills and strategiesSeniorSecondaryExposure to a widened range of more complex text typesSchool-based Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to textsComprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts
21 Cognitive processes involved in reading Underlying principles Depth of ProcessingCognitive processes involved in readingUnderstandingLocating informationWorking out meaning of words and phrasesConnecting ideasIdentifying main ideas and supporting detailsDistinguishing facts from opinionsOrganising information and ideasInferringInferring feelingsDeducing information and ideasComparing information and ideasWorking out main ideas and themesInterpretingAnalysing information and ideasSynthesisingEvaluatingJustifyingUnderlying principlesActivating learners’ prior knowledge and experiencesSelection of a wide range of texts of appropriate lengths and different topicsInterplay between texts and tasksThe provision of teacher support and the need to promote learner independenceText complexityAbstractnessOrganisationDensity ofinformationRange and applicationof reading strategies
22 Complexity of Texts Easier texts More difficult texts Abstractness Ideas and information explicitly statedStraightforward & factual informationIdeas and information implicitly statedMeaning hidden between lines or beyond linesOrganisationWell-defined text structureOrganisation of paragraphs following sequence of events, logical progression (general to specific)Use of short paragraphs, subheadings & cohesive devicesLack of well-defined text structure, mix of text-typesOrganisation of paragraphs not following a common pattern (problem-solution)Lack of signposts to facilitate understanding of textsDensity of informationMost sentences/paragraphs containing one piece of informationSentence structures and language largely simple, with occasional use of complex structuresHigh lexical density – with a large amount of information-carrying wordsA wide range of complex sentence structures and language
23 Abstractness Example: 2013 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B1 Easy Section Difficult SectionReading text 2Para 7 and 8Group courses for beginners comprise eight weekly classes of 45 minutes and cost HK$1,680. Each focuses on the basic skills of string plucking, correct body posture while playing and proper use of both hands.One-to-one classes are available for beginner, intermediate and advanced students and cost HK$420, HK$480 and HK$550 respectively. Skype lessons are available for people who would find travelling to the school difficult.Reading text 4Para 10Many young Chinese lament there is no Bill Gates of China. And the most cutting-edge scientific institutions are research centers run by Western-educated administrators wooing Chinese-born scientists back from the West, where they had relocated in order to enjoy the more rewarding research environment abroad. If they had the money and the clout and the personal connections to do so, Chinese moms would want to send their kids to Harvard (as several top-level Chinese leaders have done). In other words, the key to success is seen as a hybrid of East and West, at least when viewed from the lair of the Tiger Moms.
24 OrganisationExample: Practice Paper Part B1 (Reading texts 3 & 4) Easy Section
25 OrganisationExample: 2013 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B1 (Reading text 3) Easy Section The study revealed that people with low self-esteem were more negative than people with high self-esteem and liked less by strangers who rated their participants’ status update. The study also found that people with low self-esteem got more responses from their Facebook friends when they posted highly positive updates, compared to less positive ones. People with high self-esteem, on the other hand, used Facebook less and got more ‘like’ replies after posting something negative, perhaps because these responses are rarer for them. In theory, social networking websites like Facebook could be great for people with low self-esteem. Sharing is important for improving friendships. But in practice, people with low self-esteem seem to behave counterproductively, bombarding their friends with negative tidbits about their lives and making themselves likeable.
27 Density of information Example:2013 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B1Easy Section2012 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B2Difficult SectionReading text 3Paras 2 & 3New research suggests that so-called power users, who contribute much more content than the average Facebook user, are unwittingly revealing undesirable personal traits to their peers. The recent study also suggests that Facebook is not good for those suffering from low self-esteem.‘We had this idea that Facebook could be a fantastic place for people to strengthen their relationships,’ says Amanda Forest of the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada.Para 1The Wall Street Journal’s provocative January 8 headline alone – ‘Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior’ – would have been enough to spark intense discussion. But coupled with an excerpt from Amy Chua’s parenting memoir, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother (Penguin Press, Jan.), that sharply contrasts so-called ‘Eastern’ and ‘Western’ styles of parenting, what resulted was nothing less than a firestorm.
28 Implications for learning and teaching To review the texts in the examination papers/textbooks/skills books/practice papers in relation to students’ language abilities and learning needsTo select different texts for different pedagogical purposes (e.g. teaching/practising/assessing reading skills)To plan reading programmes which include a range of texts to cater for learner diversityChoose the right texts
29 Cognitive processes involved in reading Underlying principles Depth of ProcessingCognitive processes involved in readingUnderstandingLocating informationWorking out meaning of words and phrasesConnecting ideasIdentifying main ideas and supporting detailsDistinguishing facts from opinionsOrganising information and ideasInferringInferring feelingsDeducing information and ideasComparing information and ideasWorking out main ideas and themesInterpretingAnalysing information and ideasSynthesisingEvaluatingJustifyingUnderlying principlesActivating learners’ prior knowledge and experiencesSelection of a wide range of texts of appropriate lengths and different topicsInterplay between texts and tasksThe provision of teacher support and the need to promote learner independenceText complexityAbstractnessOrganisationDensity ofinformationRange and applicationof reading strategies
30 Progression in the development of writing skills ContentExpectations on learners at different stages of writing skills developmentWriting a small range of texts such as simple stories, letters to describe personal experiences, people, places, events and objectsConveying relevant ideasWriting a range of formal and informal texts to describe, recount, record, explain, propose and summariseElaborate ideas from various perspectivesWriting simple literary/imaginative texts with a setting and some development of plots and charactersWriting a wide range of texts to reviews, compare and contrastElaborating ideas with substantial and logical illustrationWriting literary/imaginative texts with a clear setting, a well-developed plot and good characterisationUnderlying principlesProviding opportunities for brainstorming or seeking and selecting information and ideas from different sourcesDeveloping learners’ skills in self-editing as well as reflecting on own writing based on feedback from teachers or peersReducing the amount of teacher support provided as learners progress to promote learner independenceInterplay between the task and questionsTeachers should design activities appropriate to their studentsRange of vocabulary and sentence patternsAn organisational frameworkLanguage & StyleOrganisationAppropriate tone and registerClear focus within and across paragraphs using cohesive devicesStylistic features for the text-type
31 enhancing interface: A few points to ponder What are my students capable of achieving?Are the reading texts appropriate to students?What types of learning tasks should I assign to my students?Are my students making the expected progress?What do my students need in order to progress further?Even if you are using textbooks and skills books to teach, you should think about if there is missing language knowledge and skills.Teachers should expose students to as much English as possible (e.g. by providing rich input)
32 Implementing the New Senior Secondary English Language Curriculum
33 The Senior Secondary English Language Curriculum ElectivePart(25%)Compulsory Part(75%)
34 The Compulsory Part Meaningful use of: Reading / Writing Listening / SpeakingVocabularyText TypesGrammar Forms &CommunicativeFunctionsthrough the task-based approach and the organising structure of Modules, Units and Tasks by adopting a range of approaches and strategies
35 English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6), p.54 While Modules, Units and Tasks are to be adopted for organising learning and teaching in the Compulsory Part, the modules in the Elective Part may not necessarily follow the M-U-T structure. However, the general approach to teaching the modules in the Elective Part remains task-based – that is, teachers are encouraged to continue with the principles and practices associated with task-based learning, namely using learner-centred instruction, providing opportunities for meaningful and purposeful communication and promoting integrative and creative uses of language.English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6), p.54
36 Compulsory Part Task-based Learning Grammar in Context Language Arts Integrated SkillsAssessment for LearningSelf-access Language Learning
37 The Elective Part Adds variety to the English Language curriculum Caters for students’ diverse needs and interestsBroadens students’ learning experiencesHow to choose the 3 elective modules?Alignment with the writing topics in HKDSE?
38 The Elective Part 8 Elective Modules Language Arts Non-Language Arts Learning English throughDramaShort StoriesPoems and SongsPopular CultureLearning English throughSocial IssuesDebatingSports CommunicationWorkplace Communication8 ElectiveModules
39 Relationship between the Compulsory and Elective Parts (an illustration with the drama module)Compulsory PartElective Part (Drama module)Reading/ WritingListening/ SpeakingSpeaking Skillspronunciationstressrhythm & intonationDramatised ReadingRole play / Drama performancestress & intonationexpression of emotions and feelingsshort scene writingproduction of an original scriptVocabularyExtension, application and consolidation of what has been learnedText TypesText TypesdialoguesstoriesStudents need to be told explicitly the connection between the elective part and the compulsory part.Grammar Forms &CommunicativeFunctions
40 Relationship between the Compulsory and Elective Parts (an illustration with the debating module)Compulsory PartElective Part (Debating module)Reading/ WritingListening/ SpeakingSpeaking SkillsPronunciationstressrhythm & intonation--Stress & intonation -- Writing/presenting--Expression of argumentsemotions Production of aand feeling a debate speechDebating activitiesin a less formal contexts(e.g. role play, panel discussion)Formal debatesVocabularyExtension, application and consolidation of what has been learnedText TypesText TypesArgumentative essaysSpeechesGrammar Forms &CommunicativeFunctions
41 Planning the elective part in context (key Considerations) Choice of elective modulesApproaches to implementing the elective module (as a standalone module or integrated with other curriculum and assessment components)TimetablingAdaptations of the S.O.W. (e.g. selecting appropriate learning focuses)Sources of learning and teaching materials (e.g. textbooks, school-based materials, resource packages, the media)Teacher deploymentInterface with the JS curriculum
42 Relationship between Social Issue Module and Debating Module Social issues ModuleDebating ModuleBasic understandingof knowledge and skillsDefinitionsCauses, effects &solutions (2 periods)Basic set up of debatingThe idea of argument (2 periods)Defining motionsAnalysing assumptionsForming argumentsPreparing speechesUsing delivery techniques(3-4 periods)Multiple perspectivesResearching a social issueEvaluating informationCiting sources (3-4 periods)Further input &more in-depthexplorationApplication anddemonstration ofachievementsDebating activitySelf/peer assessment(2 periods)Presenting the work indifferent formats (2 periods)
43 Integrating various curriculum components Compulsory Part and Elective PartElective Part and SBAElective Modules43
45 Elective part and sba Task 1 (7 lessons) Task 2 (5 lessons) Hot Sports Reading a webpage articleSurfing websites on sportsWriting a presentation planReading some fan material (e.g. magazines, letters, profiles)Watching a video clipSurfing websites and reading magazines on a sports playerTask 1 (7 lessons)Hot Sports(Introducing a sport in the morning assembly)Task 2 (5 lessons)Fan Talk(Writing a piece of fan material on a sports player)Task 3 (6 lessons)Open Forum(Discussing a film on sports)Viewing part of a film on sports outside classWriting a journal entry on a film on sportsSurfing websites on message boards of the film
46 Target Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes Elective modulesTarget Knowledge, Skills and AttitudesPopular Culturethe content, strategies, language and stylistic features of advertisements/commercialslinguistics and stylistic features of a leafletorganising structure of a leafletSocial Issuesunderstanding how various perspectives and lines of reasoning are presented within a reading textdemonstrating critical awareness of the complex nature of the issue by examining it from different perspectiveslanguage functions that signal causes and effects in a discussion
47 Experience sharingIn your group, share with others your experience in planning and/or implementing the senior secondary curriculum. You may want to talk about:if your school integrates different curriculum components;the challenges you encountered/you anticipate in planning and delivering the curriculum; andhow you overcame the challenges/you think the challenges could be tackled.