Presentation on theme: "Lecture # 09 History of Pakistan III (1526- 1900AD) Recap of lecture # 08 Slave Dynasty Qutub-ud- Deen Aybak (1192-1210) Khalji Dynasty:(1290–1320) Sayyid."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture # 09 History of Pakistan III (1526- 1900AD) Recap of lecture # 08 Slave Dynasty Qutub-ud- Deen Aybak (1192-1210) Khalji Dynasty:(1290–1320) Sayyid and Lodhi Dynasty: Lodhi Dynasty (1451 1526) overview of End of Salateen & European Entrance
Cont. Mughal Empire Challenges for Mughals Cultural & Political background of Pakistan Movement Impact of Islam- Cultural & Religious Influence Din-I-Illahi Start of Different Religious and Educational Movements from Muslims
Cont. Shah Wali Ullah’s Services Ahmed Shaheed Barailvi Fraizi Movement Aligarh Movement and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Today’s topic: History of Pakistan III (1526- 1800AD)
Lecture # 09:History of Pakistan III (1526- 1800AD) Mughals In 1526 in his fifth attempt, Babur defeated the last of the Delhi Sultans, Ibrahim Shah Lodi, at the First Battle of Panipat. The Mughal emperors were Muslims and direct descendants of Genghis Khan through Chagatai Khan and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled most of the subcontinent— extending from Bengal in the east to Balochistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Bay of Bangal in the south
Mughal Empire: Zaheer-ud-Deen Baber: 1526-1530 Effective rulers were:Nasir-ud-Din Humayun:1530- 56, with a break from 1540 to 1555 Jalal-ud-Din Akbar (1556-1605) Nur-ud-Din Jahangir (1605-27) Shihab-ud-Din Shah Jahan (1627-58) and Muhayyi-ud-Din Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
Ineffective rulers were remained on the throne at Dehli till 1857. Last ruler was Bahadur Shah Zafar The "classic period" of the empire started in 1556 with the accession of Akbar the Great. Under his rule, India enjoyed much cultural and economic progress as well as religious harmony Akbar was a successful warrior; he also forged martial alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms
The rule of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, was the golden age of Mughal architecture and the arts. He built many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the legendary Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Pearl Mosque, the Red Fort, Jama Masjid (Mosque), and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the peak of its territorial expansion during the rule of Aurangzeb. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 1.25 million square miles, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th of the world's population, with a combined GDP of over $90 billion
Cont. By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had captured many Mughal provinces from the Deccan to Bengal, and internal dissatisfaction (as well as separatist agendas from the Rajputs, Sikhs, and Jats) arose due to the weakness of the Mughal Empire's administrative and economic systems. In 1739, a weakened Mughal Empire was defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah of Iran. Mughal power was severely limited.
Cont. The last emperor, Bahadur Shah II had authority over only the city of Shah-jahan-abad. He supported the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and was overthrown by the British.
Rivals of Mughals in Subcontinent 1- Afghans: (Sher Shah Suri, 1530– Humayun) 2- Ahmed Shah Durrni, 1747- Aurangzeb 3- Hindus: (Shiveji & Marhats 1646 – Aurangzeb) 4- Persians: ( Nadir Shah 1738 – Auranzeb Alamgir) 5- Sikhs: (Ranjeet Singh,1799-1849 – Shah Alam) 6- British: ( since the time of Jahngeer EIC was trying to capture the power and wealth)
Cont. Bahadur Shah died in exile in 1862 in Rangoon. He was buried there and that site later became known as Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah.To the local Myanmar Muslims, he was honoured as a saint His wife Zeenat Mahal, who died in 1886 and granddaughter Raunaq Zamani are buried along side him.
European Influence Vas Code Gama, a Portuguese navigator entered in subcontinent in 1498 East India Company was founded in 1600 which governed with the consent of Parliament until 1858.Company bought a strip of sandy beach at Madras in 1639,required a lease to part of Bombay. At that time Akbar and Jahangir (1605) was ruling in Subcotinent
Cont. King Charles II in 1668 & in 1690 got permission of settlement in Calcutta- the company built a fort known as factory from which the British conducted trade/business activities
Cont. The French got off to a slow start in their attempt to build a trading empire in India and East India Company French in 1664 but never succeeded in fostering a trade volume comparable to that of British. In 1746, under the aggressive leadership of Joseph Francis Duplex French army clutched Madras however during the seven years war, the French surrendered & peace treaty was concluded in 1763.
Cont. East India Company in the 1740’s, Clive’s greatest triumph came at the Battle of Plassy In 1757, British also defected Maysour’s ruler, Hyder Ali and his son Tippu Sultan in 1780s Different British Governor Generals ruled over India from 1780 to 1947
Cont. In 1857 many traditional groups largely in north revolted. British army defused & crushed revolts one by one in different areas and also captured rule in center Dehli and that was the complete down fall of Mughal era
Cultural & Political background of Pakistan Movement Challenges for Mughals & Muslims 1-Hindus: (Shiveji & Marhats 1646 – Aurangzeb) 2-Sikhs: (Ranjeet Singh,1799-1849 – Shah Alam) 3-British: ( since the time of Jahngeer EIC was trying to capture the power and wealth)
Start of Muslim Political Struggle Shah Wali Ullah against Marhts invited Ahmed Shah Abdli in 1761at 3 rd Battle of Panipat Syed Ahmed Shaheed Baralvi against Ranjeet Singh in 1826 from Akora (N.W.F.P) Haji Shariat Ullah from Bengal in 1820 against British Sir Syed Ahmed Khan played a vital role in restoring relations between the British & Muslim after war of Independence and in helping Muslims to appreciate the value of modern education
Start of Pakistan Movement Legislative Councils Act, 1861: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan indicated in the ‘Causes of Indian Revolt’, several weakness of the British government and advised the government: i- to give the representation to the local people in the Legislative Council to create sentiments of loyalty ii- enforcement of Legislative Council Act of 1861 was the first step taken for the constitutional reforms in Subcontinent in spite of its limited scope an opportunity to the Indian people to safeguard their political interests. iii- Sir Syed Ahmd Khan was nominated as the member of the legislative council under the Act of 1861
Different Educational/Reforms Movements Aligarh Movement (western education) Tehrik-i-Deoband, Saharnpur(Islamic education & traditions) Anjumn-i-Himyat-i-Islam Lahore(modern education according to Islamic principles) Nadva-tul-Ulema Luckhnow (gereral reformation of muslim society and to remove sectarian differences among different groups of Ulema)
Aligarh Movement Based on two fold program i) Muslims revival ii)Cooperation with British government Different institutions of Aligarh 1)School of Muradabadin, 1859 (Persian & English) 2)School of Ghaziabad, 1864 (Translated work from English to Urdu) 3)Scientific Society,1866. published a journal, Aligarh Institute Gazette
Cont. 4)M.A.O high school was established in 1874 5)M.A.O College at Aligarh in 1877 6) The college raised to the level of university in 1920 Political aspect of the Aligarh Movement Sir Syed contend that his political vision gave an independent political expression to the Muslim community, which aided its goal of securing political power in India.
Cont. His philosophy guided the creation of the All India Muslim League in 1906, as a political party separate from the Congress Sir Syed's ideas inspired both the liberal, pro-British politicians of the Muslim League and the religious ideologues of the Khilafat struggle. In the 1940s, the student body of Aligarh committed itself to the establishment of Pakistan and contributed in large measure to the activities of the Muslim League
Cont. Sir Syed's patronage of Urdu led to its widespread use amongst Indian Muslim communities and following the Partition of India its adoption as the official language of Pakistan, even though Bengali and Punjabi were more prevalent at the time.
Summary Mughals Rivals of Mughals in Subcontinent European Influence Cultural & Political background of Pakistan Movement Start of Muslim Political Struggle Different Educational & Reforms Movements Start of Pakistan Movement Aligarh Movement
Quotation Acquisition of knowledge of science and technology is the only solution for the problems of Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Thank you