Presentation on theme: "Discoloration results from exposure of a fruit’s flesh to the air – Prevention: Coat fruits with some form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) – Lemon, lime,"— Presentation transcript:
Discoloration results from exposure of a fruit’s flesh to the air – Prevention: Coat fruits with some form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) – Lemon, lime, grapefruit, or orange juice
Characterized by a smooth skin covering an enlarged fleshy area surrounding the core (seeds). Examples: - apples -pears -applepear
Contain a single seed, or the pit, surrounded by a fleshy, juicy, edible portion. Examples: -Peaches -Nectarines -Apricots -Cherries -Plums
Berries have tiny seeds embedded in the flesh and a fragile cell structure. Examples: -Blackberries -Cranberries -Strawberries -Grapes
Citrus fruits have a thick outer rind and a thin membrane that separates the flesh of the fruit into segments. Good source of vitamin C Examples: Grapefruit, orange, tangerine, tangelo, kumquat, lemon, lime, mandarin orange, ugli fruit
Melons are large, juicy fruits with a thick skin and many seeds. Examples: -Watermelon -Cantaloupe -Honeydew -Casaba -Muskmelon
Tropical fruits are grown in warm climates and are considered to be somewhat exotic. Examples: -Banana -Plantain -Mango -Papaya -Pomegranate -Avocado -Pineapple -Kiwi
Won’t ripen after harvest Apples Berries Grapefruit Oranges Pineapples Tangerines Will ripen after harvest Apricots Avocados Bananas Kiwi Mangoes Nectarines Peaches Pears
Vitamins and fiber. Citrus fruits are the best source of vitamin C. Cantaloupe, apricots, and other yellow fruits are good sources of vitamin A =contain carotene.
Canned fruits come packed in juices or in light, heavy, or extra heavy syrups. Juices come in bottles, cartons, cans, or frozen concentrate If label says “juice” the product =100%juice – If not pure juice must be called another name “fruit drink”
Frozen fruits are similar in color and flavor to fresh fruits, but may lose some texture qualities during freezing. Store in the coldest part of the freezer Don’t refreeze
Goal=break down texture Sugar isn’t added until end of cooking – This thins sauce When cooking in water use as little water as possible – Prevents loss of flavor and water soluble nutrients
Most fruits are stored in the crisper drawer in the refrigerator – Citrus and pomes last longer than berries and melons To speed up the ripening process, store fruits at room temperature in a brown paper bag
Vegetable Classifications Classified by what part of the plant they come from. 1.Bulbs: garlic and onion 2.Flowers: broccoli and cauliflower 3.Fruit: tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers 4.Stems: asparagus and celery
(Continued) 5.Leaves: brussel sprouts, lettuce, and spinach 6.Seeds: peas, corn, and beans 7.Tubers: potatoes 8.Roots: beets, carrots, radishes, and sweet potatoes
Selecting Fresh Vegetables Look for good color, firmness, and absence of bruises. Avoid wilted and misshapen veggies. Choose veggies that are medium in size. Buy only what you will use in a short time. Veggies in season are usually high in quality and low in price.
Storing Vegetables Most vegetables can be kept fresh in the crisper for at least a few days. Onions should be stored in open containers at room temp. Potatoes should be stored in a cool, dry place. Potatoes exposed to light will turn green and develop a bitter flavor.
Preparing Vegetables Several changes take place when veggies are cooked. – Flavors and colors are changed; some nutrients may be lost. – Use a small amount or no liquid. – Cook for a short amount of time. – Overcooked green vegetables lose their bright green color and look grayish-green.
Milk Processing Pasteurization: milk is heated to destroy harmful bacteria. Improves the keeping quality of the milk. Ultra-High Temperature Processing (UHT): Uses higher temps than pasteurization to increase shelf life. You can store these products without refrigeration. Homogenization: a mechanical process that prevents cream from rising to the top of milk.
Types of Milk Milkfat: the fat portion of milk. Milk solids: contain most of the vitamins, minerals, protein, and sugar. Fat free milk: 0% milk fat 1%: 1% milk fat Reduced fat milk: 2% milk fat Whole: minimum of 3.5% milk fat
Cream Defined by the amount of milkfat they contain. – Heavy Whipping cream 35% fat (minimum) – Light Whipping cream 30% fat – Light cream (coffee cream) 18% fat – Half-and-Half (half milk/half cream) 10% fat
Concentrated Milk Products Evaporated Milk: milk that has had 60% of water removed. Sweetened Condensed Milk: milk that has 50% of the water removed and 44% of sweetener added. Nonfat Dry Milk: removing most of the water and fat from milk. Dried milk: powder form Fermented Milk: fermented with lactic acid bacteria – Buttermilk – Sour cream – Yogurt
Storing Dairy Highly perishable Cover and store in the coldest part of refrigerator. Keep containers tightly closed. Store sealed UHT milk products unrefrigerated for up to 6 months.
Cooking with Milk and Cream Scum formation: a solid layer that often forms on the surface of milk during heating. Boiling over: scum formation may cause pressure to build under scum. Curdling: high temps, acids, tannins, enzymes, and salts can cause milk to coagulate and form clumps called curds. Scorching: burning that results in a color change.