# How matter changes Chapter 5.

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How matter changes Chapter 5

What are physical changes in matter?
Lesson 1 Essential Question: What are physical changes in matter?

Physical Change: A change in the size, shape, or state of matter that doesn’t change it into a new state of matter Examples: melted juice bar/melting snowman broken glass cut paper

Energy: the ability to cause change
Where did the energy come from? Ball breaking a window? Paper being cut? Water evaporating? moving ball muscles in hand sun

Let’s create some physical change by making a paper snowflake!
New entry in Science IN: Compare and contrast the paper square and the snowflake. Be sure to use the word physical change. Making Paper Snowflakes The paper square and the snowflake are similar because………………. They are different because…………… My snowflake design is ………….

What happens to matter when it is heated or cooled?
Lesson 2 Essential Question: What happens to matter when it is heated or cooled?

Heating and cooling matter changes the way its particles move and the amount of space between the particles. Thermal energy: total energy of the particles of matter Thermal energy can be added and taken away from matter. You can’t see thermal energy, but you can feel it as heat. Heat: the flow of thermal energy from a warmer to a cooler area

Adding and taking away thermal energy
+ thermal energy = melted butter (liquid) (solid) melted butter - thermal energy = (liquid) (put on ice pack) (return to solid)

When you heat matter, its thermal energy grows
When you heat matter, its thermal energy grows. The particles of matter move faster and farther apart. When you cool matter, you take away thermal energy. The particles of matter slow down an move close together.

Temperature: A measure of how hot or cold matter is
Particles of matter move slower in the cold and faster in the warm. Tool of measurement: thermometer Measure in units called degrees: Celsius & Fahrenheit

Matter stays the same: Matter may look different after a physical change, but the matter does not change. Its particles are just packed together differently. After a physical change, the matter’s physical properties such as color and density, stay the same. Its mass also stays the same.

Iron – When iron gets heated, it gets soft. Soft metals can be hammered and bent into different shapes. It can get so hot it becomes a liquid.

What are mixtures and solutions?
Lesson 3 Essential Question: What are mixtures and solutions?

Lesson 3 Notes (1 page) Mixtures vs Solutions (2 pages)

Mixture: matter made of 2 or more substances or materials that are physically combined
Examples: bubbles coin jar trail mix

How can you separate mixtures?
by hand change in state density differences *You cannot separate all mixtures by hand. Some mixtures can be separated using a change in state. Example: sugar & water ~ boil the water *Separate by density Example: soil mixed with water

Sand Salt Sugar not soluble more soluble very soluble
Solution: A mixture where the particles of one kind of matter are mixed evenly with the particles of other kinds of matter Dissolve: to mix completely with another substance to form a solution *Solubility – the measure of how much a substance can dissolve into another substance. Sand Salt Sugar not soluble more soluble very soluble

parts can be easily seen & removed
Mixture Solution marbles + water salt + water All solutions are mixtures, but solutions are evenly mixed. One substance dissolves in the other. parts can be easily seen & removed

Mixture Solution Examples: Example: air Sand salt water & sugar water
made up of 2 or more types of matter mixed together Particles are mixed together, not necessarily even. Mixture Solution Particles are evenly mixed. Both are mixtures. can by easily separated not easily separated; a substance dissolves

What are chemical changes in matter?
Lesson 4 Essential Question: What are chemical changes in matter?

Chemical change: a change in matter that makes new kinds of matter with different properties
Chemical changes need energy. Energy is given off or taken in during a chemical change. During a chemical change, molecules break apart and mix with different ways with other atoms and molecules. This forms new matter with different properties. The atoms and molecules mix in new ways during a chemical reaction: a chemical change

The product is the NEW matter that is formed. Proof that chemical change is happening: bubbles change in color, state, temperature change in smell, energy a new product is formed

How chemical changes take place:
Atoms and molecules are held together by chemical bonds. During a chemical reaction, the bonds are broken. New bonds form between different atoms and molecules. This causes new matter, or products, to form. The new products are made up of different atoms and molecules, so they have different properties from the reactants.

EXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL CHANGES
CARS BURN GAS BURNING WOOD RUSTING METAL FIREWORKS EXPLODING TOASTED MARSHMALLOW BAKING A CAKE FOOD INTO ENERGY FOR YOUR BODY APPLE EXPOSED TO AIR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (ON A CUT)

Creating Chemical Change
~ LAVA LAMP ~ Creating Chemical Change Pour water into the plastic bottle until it is around one quarter full. Pour in vegetable oil until the bottle is near full. Wait until the oil and water have separated. Add around a dozen drops of food coloring to the bottle (choose any color you like). Watch as the food coloring falls through the oil and mixes with the water. Cut an Alka-Seltzer tablet into smaller pieces (around 5 or 6) and drop one of them into the bottle. Things should start getting a little crazy! When bubbling stops, add another piece of Alka-Seltzer and enjoy the show!

Lava Lamp Experiment Our lava lamp…………………. What supplies did you need? Describe the process in making the lava lamp. (You should use the word chemical change.) What did the lava lamp look like? The reactants are…………… The product is ……………

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