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Contributing community development and conserving biodiversity, piloted in Satkosia R. Raghu Prasad and Vinod Kumar.

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Presentation on theme: "Contributing community development and conserving biodiversity, piloted in Satkosia R. Raghu Prasad and Vinod Kumar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contributing community development and conserving biodiversity, piloted in Satkosia R. Raghu Prasad and Vinod Kumar

2  Odisha has rich natural forests.  37% of the State is classified as forest  Coastal mangroves, dry and moist tropical deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats.  A well-planned network of protected areas  2 national parks and 18 sanctuaries.  Forests under huge pressure ◦ forest fires, livestock grazing, shifting cultivation ◦ wildlife poaching, collection of fuel wood, timber and other forest products.

3  Government has been focusing on reducing dependence of local communities on forest resources.  Participatory approaches to forest management and promoting alternative livelihoods.  Community based Ecotourism as a strategic component in PA management.  Piloted for in few sanctuaries in Odisha.  Aims to enhance livelihoods of forest dependent communities.  Participatory processes piloted in Satkosia Tiger Reserve for the first time.  This experience have demonstrated the relevance of Community based Ecotourism as an effective tool in PA management. Community based Ecotourism.…

4  An assessment of key threats to biodiversity undertaken in four sanctuaries of Orissa.  Study shows that the PAs are impacted by ◦ forest fires, ◦ unregulated collection of timber, fuel wood, and non- timber forest products, ◦ livestock grazing, ◦ shifting cultivation ◦ poaching.  Main Inferences : ◦ threats to biodiversity from a plethora of largely interrelated pressures. ◦ pressures likely to continue and increase. ◦ current levels of resource use and disturbance are unsustainable. ◦ threats are not appropriately addressed in current PA management plans.

5 KEY THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY KotagarhKuldiha Lakhari Valley Satkosia Gorge Forest fire**** Podu (Slash-and-burn agriculture) *** Livestock grazing** **** Unregulated collection natural resources **** Unregulated collection fuel wood *** Illegal timber collection******* Wildlife poaching*** * Water-stress for wildlife in dry season **** Human-wildlife conflicts*** KEY TO SCALE OF IMPACT *** Extensive major impact ** Some areas, moderate impact * Few areas, major impact Absent, no impact (Panwar et al. 2009), OFSDP

6  Urgent need to engage local communities in eco-development and ecotourism.  Need for participatory, consensus building approaches with communities  enable communities to improve their livelihoods in ways that reduce their dependencies on forests.  Integration of biodiversity conservation requirements with the livelihood needs of village communities within PAs.  Pave the way for sustainable coexistence of people and wildlife in and around protected areas. Way forward….

7  Ecotourism is "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people."  Benefits local communities and destinations; environmentally, culturally and economically.  Ecotourism represents a set of principles successfully implemented in various global communities.  Supported by extensive industry and academic research.  Ecotourism principles: ◦ Minimize impact. ◦ Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect. ◦ Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts. ◦ Provide direct financial benefits for conservation. ◦ Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people.  Ecotourism, among the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry worldwide.

8 Ecotourism opportunities & present scenario in Odisha…….  Odisha has rich natural and cultural heritage.  State is well known for its temples and beaches.  Deserves greater exposure of its hills, forests, wildlife and tribal culture.  Tourism developed primarily in coastal regions and a handful of inland locations.  Ecotourism, not properly understood and developed in a meaningful way that benefits nature conservation and local communities.  Many destinations marketed as ecotourism in PAs, often do not: ◦ promote low impact visitor behavior; ◦ provide support for local conservation efforts; ◦ provide benefits to local communities.

9 Ecotourism and role of Forestry Sector……  Develop and adopt an ecotourism policy based on international definitions, principles and standards.  Demonstrating good practices and standards.  Fostering community based ecotourism within and adjacent to protected areas, as part of eco- development.  Hosting an website to promote understanding of ecotourism and market destinations for the benefit of the visitor.

10 CRITERIASatkosia GorgeKuldihaDebrigarh Tikarapada Nature Camp Kuldiha Ecotourism Complex Ecotourism Cottages Barakhandia Surrounding natural and cultural environment conserved. --- © Minimal impact on natural surroundings during construction. © * * Local architecture and building material usedCanvas tents * * Sustainable means of water acquisition; use is minimized. © --- Sustainable means of energy acquisition; use is minimized. © © * Water minimized and recycled * * * Environmentally acceptable disposal of solid waste and sewage ? ? ? Local products used. --- Use of toxic chemicals in daily operations avoided. --- Ecolodge run by members of local community. © * © Interpretation of local natural and cultural heritage * * * (Panwar et al. 2009), OFSDP Key: © Criterion met through conscious effort ? Not known --- Criterion may be met but not as a result of any deliberate effort * Criterion not met

11 Satkosia spreads along the magnificent gorge over river Mahanadi. Established in 1976 as a wildlife sanctuary. Declared as Satkosia Tiger Reserve in 2007. Spread over 4 districts; Angul, Cuttack, Nayagarh, Boudh Satkosia is vulnerable to heavy biotic pressures. Community Based Ecotourism in Satkosia… the Pilot

12 Biotic pressures….  116 villages population around 1.2 lakh  Communities depend on fuel wood, fodder, timber, NTFP, bamboo, fishing etc.  Wage employment was generated through timber and bamboo working.  After declaration of the wildlife sanctuary, many restrictions imposed.  This creates unrest and dissatisfaction among local communities.  The sanctuary has been facing severe biotic pressures over the years. ◦ Timber smuggling ◦ Poaching ◦ Forest fire ◦ Illegal fishing.

13  Community Based Ecotourism was initiated in Satkosia during 2006.  A temporary Nature Camp set up at Tikarpada and managed by local communities.  Local households in Tikarpada village were mobilized to form an Ecotourism group (ETG).  24 poor households who were dependent on forest resources and fishing included in the ETG.  Group provided training on hospitality management, catering, reception services, pitching of tents etc.  The group registered as a society called Tikarpada Paribesh Paryatan Samiti, Tikarpada (TIPPS).

14 The initial infrastructure support was provided. Tents, solar street lights, solar home lighting, crockery, furniture etc. The assets remain with the forest department. The nature camp provides a tour package Accommodation, boating, trekking and catering facilities. The group manages and maintains the entire infrastructure

15 Online Reservations through or ‘Ecotourism Cell’ at Angul. The camp has become hugely popular among visitors. The community derives substantial profits from this ecotourism venture. This initiative has helped park management to win support of local communities towards wildlife conservation.

16 Day One 11.00- 12.00 noonCheck in 12.30 pm -2.00 pmLunch in the dining space 3.30 pmTea, followed by briefing 4.00 pm – 5.30 pmBoat ride 7.00 pmCamp fire 8.30 pm – 10.00 pmDinner Day Two 6.30 amWake up call, Tea/Coffee 7.00 am-8.30 amNature trails 8.30 amBreakfast 11.00 amCheck out


18 Incomes……. Year No. of guests Gross income Expenditur e Net income 35% of net income for corpus fund to be used next year 65% of net income shared among of the group for 5 months Share per household per month 2006-0725666,950Nil66,95023,43343,517 791/- ( 11 households) 2007-0810473,54,5063,9142,90,586103,6071,86,979 1890/- (20 households) 2008-0913868,40,8504,43,9034,25,3171,48,5772,75,928 2299/- (24 Households) 2009-10201311,56,7615,02,4266,54,3352,29,0174,25,317 3544/- (24 Households) 2010-111694 13,81,9715,55,9108,26,0613,30,4254,95,636 4130/- (24 Households)


20 StakeholderBenefits Local Community (Tikarpada Village) Benefits from increased income Protected Area Management Gains goodwill and support from local communities for Biodiversity conservation TouristsBetter visitor experience, enhanced environment awareness and conservation education

21  A Memorandum of Understanding between PA management and the local EDC.  Defines the relationship between parties ◦ respective responsibilities ◦ distribution of financial benefits accruing from the venture ◦ Benefit sharing between those running the eco- lodge, the local EDC and the protected area management.  Variety of benefit sharing models developed in PAs, (Periyar Tiger Reserve)  Benefit sharing model will be specific for each ecotourism venture  Depend on various factors ◦ type of venture ◦ period of operation ◦ institutional arrangements.

22 Comprehensive ecotourism plan for Satkosia  A comprehensive ecotourism plan for Satkosia was developed.  Needs of various stakeholders analyzed ◦ protected area and its biodiversity ◦ local community ◦ park management ◦ visitors.

23 1 2 3 4

24 h E E E h h h h h CORE BUFFER Tikarapada Baliput Ranibhuin Tulka Bhurkundi Katrang Majhipada Purnakote Visitor Centre Eco-lodge home-stay VC E h Chhotkei VC Walk Cycle Traditional fishing boat

25 Micro planning for Ecotourism  Village level micro planning is essential to capture needs of the community.  Consensus among all sections of the village in running an ecotourism enterprise.  Some communities cautious of allowing visitors entering their village.  Others find it as an opportunity to tap the ecotourism incomes.  Ecotourism master plan of the PA needs to be discussed and agreed upon with the community at large.  In Satkosia the ecotourism activates,were practiced within the larger gamut of Eco- development.  Micro planning is essential to identify target households 

26 Poor Households who are dependent on forest resources are targeted. Simple PRA tools help in identifying the target households. Ensures equity and transparency. PRA tools social mapping, forest dependency wellness ranking and household interviews.


28 Wellness and forest dependency ranking charts Useful to identify target households for ecotourism & Income generating activities

29 Reciprocal commitments…  Reciprocal commitments from community to wildlife conservation and protection should be agreed upon.  Done during the micro planning process  EDC must reciprocate various commitments to ensure that biodiversity is protected and conserved.  ◦ No fire, poaching, illegal felling of timber ◦ Rotational grazing ◦ Provision of intelligence, information and assistance in prevention and investigation of offences and offenders. ◦ Registration of all fire arms in the village.

30 Second ecotourism initiative in Satkosia Master plan for an Eco friendly nature camp at Chotkei Compressed earth bricks, treated bamboo, bamboo corrugated sheets. Low carbon footprint. Funds provided to the EDC for construction.

31  Ecotourism groups (ETG) selected during micro planning.  ETGs to be identified and ratified by the EDCs.  ETGs will be allowed to manage the Eco-lodges, boating etc

32  Treatment of Bamboo done by EDC

33  Construction using compressed earth bricks

34  Bamboo corrugated sheets for roofing

35 Capacity building & training is integral. Ecotourism group trained in catering, house keeping, reception services, hospitality management. Trained at Institute of Hotel Management and Catering, Bhubaneswar.

36 Nature camp, Chotkei was launched in Dec 2011

37 Thousands of picnickers visit Satkosia every year. Unmanaged picnicking polluted the area. Alternative picnic area developed through EDC. Picnicking banned in rest if Tiger reserve.

38 River View Picnic, Goindi Located on the Mahanadi river bank Managed by an Ecotourism Group Community run Picnic areas

39 Seating spaces, toilets and water supply Fire wood and cooking utensils supplied. Boating facility introduced. Plans to introduce catering by the group.

40 The profits shared ETG members Over Rs 1.0 lakh profit during 2010

41  Community based ecotourism initiatives have bridged the gap between the forest dwellers and the PA management.  Increased incomes from ecotourism initiatives have convinced villages about the benefits from ecotourism.  There is perceptible change in the attitude of the community towards wildlife conservation.  Over the years the villagers have supported the PA management in fire prevention, providing intelligence input into wildlife poaching and timber smuggling.  Illegal movement of forest produce through the Mahanadi River stopped due to the active involvement of TIPPS, at Tikarpada.

42 YearNo of wildlife offence cases 2005-0616 2006-0713 2007-0812 2008-095 2009-104 2010-113 Year No. of Timber smuggling offence cases No. of vehicles seized Motorized Non motorized 2005-06639350 2006-07559656 2007-082684- 2008-09141-- 2009-102824 2010-111000

43 Conclusions and lesions learnt..  Community based ecotourism model in Satkosia, has shown substantial insights.  Ecotourism provides alternative livelihoods to the deprived community, bringing increased incomes.  This changes the attitude of the community to the PA.  Benefits to stakeholders ◦ Community has gained through increased incomes ◦ PA managers gained enhanced support ◦ Tourists have benefited from better visitor experiences and conservation education values ◦ PA is benefited through enhanced biodiversity conservation.

44 Thank You

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