# Inferences Playing the Educated Guessing Game {Click mouse to continue}

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Inferences Playing the Educated Guessing Game {Click mouse to continue}

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What is an Inference? IIt is based on all of the information that you have available at that time. IIt is not necessarily a correct guess, but it is an educated one. An inference is an assumption that you make about something that you see, read, or experience. {Click mouse to continue}

Everyday Inferences Here are some inferences that you probably make on a daily basis. If your professor writes information on the board during a lecture You infer that it is important information that you may need later. If your son or daughter runs in the house holding their knee and crying You infer that they have somehow hurt their knee. You may not always be correct in your inferences, but they are assumptions that you make based on the given clues. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess You already know how to make everyday inferences! Lets look at a few scenarios and infer about what is going on. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess? 1.What is this woman doing? 2. Where do you think this woman is? 3.Is she there for work or pleasure? {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess? Lets look a little bit closer and evaluate your guesses. What is she doing? She is on the telephone. Where do you think this woman is? Based on the furniture and decorations, she is probably in a hotel room. Is she there for work or pleasure? Based on the her clothing and the presence of a fax machine, she is probably there for work. {Click mouse to continue}

1.Where are they? 2. Who is the man standing in the front of the room? 3. Is this company on the cutting edge? Inferences: Take Another Guess? {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess? Lets look a little bit closer and evaluate your assumptions. Where are they? The table and topic, reveal that they are in a corporate board room. Who is the man standing in the front of the room? Because he is in the front of the room standing we would infer that he is the boss. Is this company on the cutting edge? We can infer by his dialogue that they are behind the competition. {Click mouse to continue}

1.What season is it in this picture? 2. What is the person doing? 3.What socio- economic group does she belong to? Lower Class? Middle class? Upper Class? Inferences: Take One More Guess? {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess? Lets look a little bit closer and evaluate your assumptions. What season is it in this picture? The Santa hat and Ornament reveal that it is winter. What is the person doing? She is holding the Ornament. We could infer further that she is decorating a Christmas tree. What socio- economic group does she belong to? Based on the quality of the clothing and ornament, we can rule out lower class. Based on the known information any further inference would be a stretch. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Word Pictures As you looked at the previous pictures, you were able to infer things about the scenarios that they presented. When you read a text, think of it as a WORD PICTURE. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Word Pictures When reading, there are several types of word pictures the author will paint for you. The setting A Character’s Personality or Emotions What a Character’s Motives Might Be What the Writer’s Motives behind writing the piece might be Just To Name A Few It will be your job to use those picture to infer things such as: Lets look at a few examples! {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: The Setting The air blowing off of the water is clean and crisp. As she slowly made her way to her destination, the damp sand beneath her feet began to stick to the bottom of her toes. Finally, she was close enough to see. A blue and white table cloth spread over the sand. Candles, crystal, and china glistened in the light of the setting sun. She smiled, and a tear ran down her cheek. Where is this woman? What time of day is it? As she approaches, what does she see? Will she be spending the evening alone? Read the following selection: {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: The Setting The air blowing off of the is clean and crisp. As she slowly made her way to her destination, the damp beneath her feet began to stick to the bottom of her toes. Finally, she was close enough to see. A blue and white spread over the sand. glistened in the light of the. She smiled, and a tear ran down her cheek. Where is this woman? What time of day is it? As she approaches, what does she see? Will she be spending the evening alone? Based on the word picture painted for us, she is on the beach. water sand It is evening. setting sun That someone has prepared a romantic picnic for her. We can logically assume that whomever has made the picnic will probably join her. table cloth Candles, crystal, and china {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Character Personalities & Emotions Author’s often use word pictures to give you clues about the personalities and emotions of the characters. For Instance: If the character is shown refusing to be controlled by others such as their parents, boss, or other authority figure We infer that they are rebellious. If we see them doing things that show good character in front of other, but exhibiting negative traits when alone We infer that they are deceptive. If the character storms out of the room, slamming the door behind them We infer that they are angry. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Character Personalities & Emotions With this in mind, lets take another look at the excerpt we read earlier. The air blowing off of the water is clean and crisp. As she slowly made her way to her destination, the damp sand beneath her feet began to stick to the bottom of her toes. Finally, she was close enough to see. A blue and white table cloth spread over the sand. Candles, crystal, and china glistened in the light of the setting sun. How does the woman feel about what this person has done? Though we have not been introduced to the person that has planned this, what can we assume about their personality? Based on her smile and tears, we can assume she is happy and touched by the gesture. We can assume that he is caring, romantic, and thoughtful. Though this may or may not prove to be correct by the end of the story, that is the word picture the author is painting for us. She smiled, and a tear ran down her cheek. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Character Motives Lets add on a few lines to that excerpt… Charles had been planning this night for weeks. He had waited for a night with clear skies and a soft breeze. He had laid out the tablecloth, placed the glasses and plates just right. For a few seconds, he wondered if she had found the note that he had left her, but soon he could see her slowly walking down the beach. As she approached, he took a deep breath, kneeled down on one knee, and pulled a small box from his pocket. Why did he leave her a note? Why has Charles made this picnic for her? We can infer that he left her a note to tell her to meet him on the beach. To propose to her. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Writer’s Motives All people have their own moral and political perspectives. Sometimes, these perspectives color what an author writes. This can take place in both fiction and nonfiction pieces. Read the following excerpt and try to determine what this writer’s motives for writing this might be. At the close of the year 1999, composting and recycling had stopped 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Though that is a good start, America has a long way to go. As a country, it is our responsibility to protect the environment for the sake of future generations! {Click mouse to continue}

Do you think this is a fiction or nonfiction piece? What motives does this writer have for writing this piece? At the close of the year 1999, composting and recycling had stopped 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Though that is a, America has long way to go. As a country, it is to protect the environment for the sake of future generations! Inferences: Writer’s Motives Lets ask ourselves a few questions about this piece. How do we know that we are getting colored information? This is a nonfiction piece. The writer is an environmentalist. Because we are only given one sided statistics and by the use of these words. good start our responsibility {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Now that you know how to use what the text does say to figure out things that it does not, Lets look at a few excerpts to practice your new skills! Write your answers down as you go. {Click mouse to continue}

Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness that most frightens us. Your playing small does not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine, as children do. And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others. -a return to love by marianne williamson Read the following poem, and answer the questions that follows. Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 {Click mouse to continue}

Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness that most frightens us. Your playing small does not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine, as children do. And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others. -a return to love by marianne williamson 1. Infer what the writer’s motive is. a) She is trying to frighten her audience into appropriate behavior. b) She is a child activist. c) Her motive is to inspire her reader. Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 {Click mouse to continue}

Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness that most frightens us. Your playing small does not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine, as children do. And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others. -a return to love by marianne williamson 2. With which statement would the author most agree? a) All men/women are created equal. b) Life is not fair. c) The only thing to fear is fear itself. Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Geoffrey awoke early that morning, for fear of being late for his appointment. He showered, brushed his hair, and put on his best suit. He stuck extra ink pens and pencils into his brief case. He did not want to leave anything to chance. He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work. Read the following paragraph, and answer the questions that follow. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Geoffrey awoke early that morning, for fear of being late for his appointment. He showered, brushed his hair, and put on his best suit. He stuck extra ink pens and pencils into his brief case. He did not want to leave anything to chance. He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work. 1.What kind of appointment is Geoffrey getting ready for? a)He is going job hunting. b)He is going to a board meeting for his job. c)He is going to a job interview. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Geoffrey awoke early that morning, for fear of being late for his appointment. He showered, brushed his hair, and put on his best suit. He stuck extra ink pens and pencils into his brief case. He did not want to leave anything to chance. He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work. 2. Who is Martha? a)His mother. b)His wife. c)His daughter. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Geoffrey awoke early that morning, for fear of being late for his appointment. He showered, brushed his hair, and put on his best suit. He stuck extra ink pens and pencils into his brief case. He did not want to leave anything to chance. He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work. 3. Which of these personality traits best fits Geoffrey? a)Responsible b)Optimistic c)Selfish {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Geoffrey awoke early that morning, for fear of being late for his appointment. He showered, brushed his hair, and put on his best suit. He stuck extra ink pens and pencils into his brief case. He did not want to leave anything to chance. He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work. 4. What is Geoffrey’s motive for waking up early ? a)To be an example for his children. b)To be on time for his appointment. c)He does not want Martha to go back to work. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Geoffrey awoke early that morning, for fear of being late for his appointment. He showered, brushed his hair, and put on his best suit. He stuck extra ink pens and pencils into his brief case. He did not want to leave anything to chance. He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work. 5. What might he need extra pens and pencils for at his appointment ? a)To fill out necessary forms. b)To take notes on the speaker. c)To hand out as advertisements for his firm. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Now, lets check your inferences. c) Her motive is to inspire her reader. The author’s motive is shown in statements like these: Though she uses the word children, the dominant topic is inspiration and motivation {Click mouse to continue} 1. Infer what the writer’s motive is. a) She is trying to frighten her audience into appropriate behavior. b) She is a child activist. “We are powerful beyond measure…We are all meant to shine, as children do.”

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 a) All men/women are created equal. Looking at the same quote we saw before: The author’s use of “we” and “all” suggests that she believes everyone is meant to shine. Evidence of the other beliefs are not in the poem. {Click mouse to continue} 2. With which statement would the author most agree? b) Life is not fair. c) The only thing to fear is fear itself. “We are powerful beyond measure…We are all meant to shine, as children do.”

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 Now, lets go on to the next piece. 1.What kind of appointment is Geoffrey getting ready for? a)He is going job hunting. b)He is going to a board meeting for his job. c) He is going to a job interview. “He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work.” The writer is suggesting that the appointment will solve this problem: We can assume that he is not going job hunting because that does not require an appointment. {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 2. Who is Martha? a)His mother. c) His daughter. b) His wife. The same quote we used for the last question, suggests that Martha is the mother of his children and not his mother or his child. “He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work. “ {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 3. Which of these personality traits best fits Geoffrey? b) Optimistic c) Selfish a)Responsible These words describe a man who is responsible. There are no suggestions that he is optimistic or selfish in the text. “Geoffrey awoke early that morning … He stuck extra ink pens and pencils into his brief case. He did not want to leave anything to chance.” {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 4. What is Geoffrey’s motive for waking up early ? a)To be an example for his children. b)To be on time for his appointment. c) He does not want Martha to go back to work. Though Geoffrey does not want to be late for his interview, that is not his ultimate motive. His ultimate motive would be what is causing him to want to be on time in the first place. This brings us back to this quote: “He knew that if he did not get a job soon, Martha would have to leave the children and go back to work.” {Click mouse to continue}

Inferences: Take a Guess Part 2 5. What might he need extra pens and pencils for at his appointment ? b) To take notes on the speaker. c) To hand out as advertisements for his firm. a) To fill out necessary forms. Because we have established that Geoffrey is going to a job interview, we can infer that he needs these utensils to fill out the application or any other forms that they may give him {Click mouse to continue}

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