Presentation on theme: "Clinical Documentation Tips Reflection of Acuity & Medical Necessity"— Presentation transcript:
1Clinical Documentation Tips Reflection of Acuity & Medical Necessity “I Bill for It”
2ObjectivesUnderstand the elements of synergies in clinical documentation impacting physicians and hospitalsUnderstand relationship between specificity in documentation and patient acuityLearn how patient acuity and comorbid conditions drives medical necessity and E & M assignmentAppreciate the “pitfalls” and “traps” of documentation that contribute to denials and downcoding of E & M
3History of Present Illness HPI is chronological description of the development of the patient’s present illness from the first sign and/or symptom or from the previous encounter to the present.Focus upon present illness!Limit elements of past history for documentation in the Past Family Social History section of the History
4HPI HPI → 8 elements Location Quality Severity Duration Timing Context Modifying factorsAssociated signs and symptoms
5HPI that are really “HPI’s” Mrs. Jones, a 75 year old patient presented to the Emergency Room with abdominal pain lower left quadrant of three days duration, suddenly worse last night, with associated shortness of breath, took Maalox, didn’t help. Pain described as at 10 on a pains scale of 10. Pain now 7 out of 10 after receiving Morphine in the ER.
7Right to the PointHPI- The patient presented from the Personal Care Home with a two day history of worsening shortness of breath and nonproductive cough. She started using oxygen at home but this got progressively worse , particularly when ambulating, and she came to the Emergency Room this morning and was found to be in acute respiratory distress.
8Right to the PointShe was evaluated and found to have acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, congestive heart failure with possible pneumonia. She was stabilized somewhat in the Emergency Room but is still short of breath, more so that at her usual baseline. She is being admitted for further evaluation and treatment.
9Assessment & PlanThis is a 75 year old-female with 1) Acute congestive heart failure, acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction with probable chronic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We are going to admit her, give her fluid restrictions, intravenous Lasix for diuresis and pulmonary toilet. Will monitor closely.
10Assessment & Plan1) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation with acute on chronic respiratory failure and hypoxia and hypercapnia and acute respiratory acidosis. We are going to give her oxygen and pulmonary toilet with Duoneb treatment. Will diurese her as noted above. Will cover empirically for infection with Avelox, 400 mg, IV daily. Monitor closely and call in pulmonology service and cardiology service if clinical conditions worsen.
11Assessment & Plan Continued 3) Diabetes mellitus, Type II controlled, and will continue her on Lantus and start her regular insulin sliding scale and monitor4) Hypertension, will continue current medications and monitorHistory of breast cancer. Status post lumpectomy, apparently stable.5) History of long QT syndrome. She does have an implantable defibrillator. Will rule out MI per protocol and monitor closely(Total time for H & P examination one hour)Would be helpful to relate MI rule out to HPI of acute respiratory distress, linking symptoms or provisional diagnoses to the diagnostic tests ordered
13Role of HPI HPI drivers: Extent of PFSH, ROS and physical exam performedMedical necessity for amount work performed and documentedMedical necessity for E & M assignmentMedical necessity of an Evaluation and Management (E/M) encounter is often visualized only when viewed through the prism of its characteristics captured in specific History of Present Illness (HPI) elements.
14Speaking of Medical Necessity Federal law requires that all expenses paid by Medicare, including expenses for Evaluation and Management services, are medically reasonable and necessary.1862(a)(1)(a) of the Social Security Act, Title XVIIINo payment can be made for items and services that are not reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member.Applies to physician and hospital
15Synergy of Clinical Documentation Physician Responsible for patient designation assignmentInpatient versus Outpatient ServiceThe decision to admit a patient is a complex medical judgment which can be made only after the physician has considered a number of factors, including the patient's medical history and current medical needs, the types of facilities available to inpatients and to outpatients, the hospital's by-laws and admissions policies, and the relative appropriateness of treatment in each setting.Chapter 1 section 10 of Medicare Benefit Policy Manual
16Documentation of Acuity Factors to be considered when making the decision to admit include such things as:The severity of the signs and symptoms exhibited by the patient;The medical predictability of something adverse happening to the patient;The need for diagnostic studies that appropriately are outpatient services (i.e., their performance does not ordinarily require the patient to remain at the hospital for 24 hours or more) to assist in assessing whether the patient should be admitted; andThe availability of diagnostic procedures at the time when and at the location where the patient presents.
18Medical NecessityMedical necessity of a service is the overarching criterion for payment in addition to the individual requirements of a CPT code.It would not be medically necessary or appropriate to bill a higher level of evaluation and management service when a lower level of service is warranted.Less Complex diagnoses potentially warrant a lower level of E & M
19Signs, Symptoms & Nonspecific Diagnoses Medical ComplexitySigns, Symptoms & Nonspecific DiagnosesSpecific DiagnosesChest Pain/Acute Coronary SyndromeHypoxemia/Acute Respiratory DistressNausea and VomitingCHFPostobstructive Pneumonia with right lower lobe cancer inoperableNon ST MI with unstable anginaAcute hypoxemic respiratory failureFood poisoning with severe dehydrationAcute on chronic systolic left sided heart failureSuspected gram-negative pneumonia in a patient with known inoperable RLL cancer
20Medical NecessityMedical necessity of E/M services is generally expressed in two ways: frequency of services and intensity of service (CPT level).Medicare’s determination of medical necessity is separate from its determination that the E/M service was rendered as billed.
21Medical NecessityMedicare determines medical necessity largely through the experience and judgment of clinician coders along with the limited tools provided in CPT and by CMS.At audit, Medicare will deny or downcode E/M services that, in its judgment, exceed the patient’s documented needs
22Elements of Medical Necessity Medical necessity of E/M services is based on the following attributes of the service that affected the physician’s documented work:Number, acuity and severity/duration of diagnoses/ problems addressed through history, physical and medical decision-making.
23Common Documentation Deficiency Progress Note9/13 10:10 AM- Patient had no new complaints, stable overnight. VS stable, Labs WNL.Assessment and Plan: Continue Present ManagementDeficiencyNot Clear Face-to-Face EncounterAbsence of DiagnosesNo Billable E & M service
24Elements of Medical Necessity The context of the encounter among all other services previously rendered for the same problemComplexity of documented comorbidities that clearly influenced physician work.Physical scope encompassed by the problems (number of physical systems affected by the problems).
25Complexity Does Matter Less ComplexMore ComplexAcute respiratory distressCHFCHF worseningCOPD exacerbationCOPD exacerbation with hypoxemiaAcute respiratory failureAcute systolic CHFAcute on chronic systolic CHFAcute respiratory failure with COPD exacCOPD exacerbation with chronic respiratory failureMore complex diagnoses represent higher complexity of medical decision making
29Medical Decision Making Medical decision making refers to the complexity of establishing a diagnosis and/or selecting a management option as measured by:The number of possible diagnoses and/or the number of management options that must be considered;The amount and/or complexity of medical records, diagnostic tests, and/or other information that must be obtained, reviewed, and analyzed; andThe risk of significant complications, morbidity, and/or mortality, as well as comorbidities associated with the patient's presenting problem(s), the diagnostic procedure(s) and/or the possible management options.Number of possible diagnoses versus symptoms. Provisional diagnoses do count toward medical decision making, symptoms do not count toward medical decision making
30Medical Decision Making MDM consists of 4 levelsStraight Forward ComplexityLow ComplexityModerate ComplexityHigh ComplexityGeneral Rule of Thumb is inpatient encounter should equate to Moderate or High Complexity
31Amount & Complexity of Data The amount and complexity of data to be reviewed is based on the types of diagnostic testing ordered or reviewed.A decision to obtain and review old medical records and/or obtain history from sources other than the patient increases the amount and complexity of data to be reviewed
32Number of Diagnoses & Management Options The number of possible diagnoses and/or the number of management options that must be considered is based on the number and types of problems addressed during the encounter, the complexity of establishing a diagnosis and the management decisions that are made by the physician.HPI provides a roadmap for the amount of work performed including PE, establishment of medical necessity for ordering tests, amount of work performed, and medical decision making
33Documentation TipsDG: For each encounter, an assessment, clinical impression, or diagnosis should (must)be documented. It may be explicitly stated or implied in documented decisions regarding management plans and/or further evaluation.For a presenting problem with an established diagnosis the record should reflect whether the problem is: a) improved, well controlled, resolving or resolved; or, b) inadequately controlled, worsening, or failing to change as expected.Notice reference to diagnosis and not sign or symptom, clinical impression and assessment represent diagnoses vs. sign or symptom
34Documentation TipsFor a presenting problem without an established diagnosis, the assessment or clinical impression may be stated in the form of a differential diagnoses or as "possible,” "probable,” or "rule out” (R/O) diagnoses.In your initial clinical impression, advantageous to list your provisional diagnoses that will be substantiated or ruled out with further diagnosis plan and work up
35Best Strategy Documentation Chief Complaint: Chest PainHPI- Eighty-five year old female patient unassigned presented to the ER with abdominal pain 8 out 10 radiating to the chest, associated shortness of breath, worse at night and after eating a large meal. Patient states pain was waxing and waning for last few days, became intolerable this morning, not relieved by Maalox, prompted her to seek medical attention in the Emergency Room.
36Best Strategy Documentation Assessment & PlanChest pain- possible MI but less likely given the fact the patient does not have any risk factors for MI other than age. Will still initiate the ROMI protocol to ensure we don’t get caught in situation of blind obedienceAbdominal pain- likely mesenteric ischemia in light of the fact patient’s abdominal pain is worse after eating a large meal. Will order mesenteric duplex ultrasound and CT scan with contrast to evaluate status of vasculature. Will consult surgery for their recommendations of further work-up. IV pain meds as needed and NPO for now.
37Practical Documentation Tips When documenting MDM, a list of established diagnoses or potential diagnoses is insufficient for coding purposes without additional indications in the record of meaningful and necessary evaluation for each problem.Practitioners should record relevant impressions, tentative diagnoses, confirmed diagnoses and all therapeutic options chosen related to every problem for which evaluation and management is clearly demonstratedTip- stability of chronic conditions should be documented as well as discussion of relationship to abnormal diagnostic results to established or provisional diagnoses.
38Documentation Approach Tell DocumentationShow DocumentationAssessment:Dizziness and headacheTIA-Acute sinusitisHypertensionHyperlipidemiaGoutHistory of breast cancerAssessment:Dizziness and headacheTIA- with patient describing an episode of slurred speech and difficulty finding words and weakness of left arm, this may be a TIA, will order a follow-up CT as initial in ER was indeterminate.Hypertension- BP reading in the ER indicated hypertensive urgency, 205/120, perhaps BP elevation contributing to patient’s dizziness and headache. Will monitor and step up her anti-hypertension meds
39Clinical Case StudyHPI: Mrs. Cold Weather presented to the Emergency Room with shortness of breath of three days duration, complains of chest pain at the same time of shortness of breath, waxing and waning, stabbing at some time, 8 out of 10, not relieved by her usual nitro.PFH: Ischemic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, EF 10-15%
40Clinical Case Study Continued…. PSH: quite smoking 20 years ago, lives with her husband who is in good health for his agePast Surgical History; Non-contributoryLabs: BNP 2276, cardiac enzymes and Troponin mildly elevatedChest X-ray shows cardiomegaly with pulmonary vascular congestion
41Clinical Case Study Continued…. Clinical Impression:Chest pain and shortness of breath rule out MI, rule out MI protocolElevated BNP- will start IV Lasix IV 80 mg, monitor output, chest X-ray PM,Reduced EF- left ventricular systolic dysfunctionChronic renal insufficiency
43Clinical Case Study Continued…. Clinical Impression: Mrs. Cold Weather with history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and end stage renal disease presents with chest pain and shortness of breathPossible MI, will follow MI protocolPossible Acute systolic CHF, likely chronic in nature also, continue to diurese. Will contact patient’s regular cardiologistEnd stage renal disease- will need monitor renal function closely and diurese carefully
44Table of RiskThe risk of significant complications, morbidity, and/or mortality is based on the risks associated with the presenting problem(s), the diagnostic procedure(s), and the possible management options.DG: Comorbidities/underlying diseases or other factors that increase the complexity of medical decision making by increasing the risk of complications, morbidity, and/or mortality should be documented.
48Now a Word from our Sponsor Progress note Day #2No events overnight, patient has no complaints, appears comfortablePneumonia-will start IV antibiotic, order WBCCOPD exacerbation-will start Duonebs, IV steroids, pulmonary toilet, will encourage smoke cessationHypertension –will monitor
50New & Improved Progress Note Day # 3 No events overnight, patient has no complaints, appears comfortablePneumonia-will start IV antibiotic, order WBCCOPD exacerbation-will start Duonebs, IV steroids, pulmonary toilet, will encourage smoke cessationHypertension, will monitor
51Principles of Documentation The documentation should support the intensity of the patient evaluation and/or the treatment, including thought processes and the complexity of medical decision-making as it relates to the patient's chief complaint for the encounter.
52Principles of Documentation The patient's progress, including response to treatment, change in treatment, change in diagnosis, and patient non-compliance should be documented
53Importance of Proper and Accurate Documentation Services billed to the Medicare program are the sole responsibility of the Medicare provider.Your documentation needs to be unique, specific, and should accurately reflect the services you are billing.
54Importance of Proper and Accurate Documentation Documentation not only must reflect necessity and the services provided but also must be consistent among the providers involved in an episode of care.Medicare payment for services may be denied if the supporting documentation is not thorough.
55Clinical Thought Processes Progress note Day #2CC- shortness of breathHPI- patient still complaining of shortness of breath but only when he first gets up in morningPneumonia-improving, WBC trending down to 16 from 24, bands 8, still has fever and x-ray slow clearing, will continue IV antibiotics, follow labs,COPD exacerbation-slowly improving, lungs still junky, easily short of breath with minimal exertion, will continue Duonebs, IV steroids, pulmonary toilet, will encourage smoke cessation
56Clinical Thought Processes Progress note Day #3CC- shortness of breathHPI- patient still complaining of shortness of breath but no episodes in last 12 hoursPneumonia-improving, WBC almost back to within upper limits of normal, morning labs show WBC 12 from initial 24, bands 2, fever has just about cleared, x-ray slow clearing, will step down to PO antbx, anticipate discharge tomorrow.COPD exacerbation-resolving, responded well to hospital course of therapy. Patient agrees to smoking cessation counseling outpatient.
57Nature of Presenting Problem Ensure the nature of the patient’s presentation corresponds to CPT’s contributory factors of the nature of the presenting problem and/or patient’s status descriptions for the code reported.
58Nature of Presenting Problem For instance:99231 – “Usually the patient is stable, recovering or improving.”99232 – “Usually the patient is responding inadequately to therapy or has developed a minor complication.”99233 – “Usually the patient is unstable or has developed a significant complication or a significant new problem.”
59Evidence Based Medicine There Must Be a Better Way!
60The Five Step ProcessDetermine that the service is medically necessaryProvide the service needed in order to properly meet the patient’s needs.Document the service provided.Select the most appropriate CPT/HCPCS code for the medically necessary service that was provided and properly documented.Submit the service to Medicare that was medically necessary and documented.