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Diagnostic Method Diagnosis Diagnosis means `through knowledge` and entails acquisition of data about the patient and their complaints using the senses:

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Presentation on theme: "Diagnostic Method Diagnosis Diagnosis means `through knowledge` and entails acquisition of data about the patient and their complaints using the senses:"— Presentation transcript:


2 Diagnostic Method Diagnosis Diagnosis means `through knowledge` and entails acquisition of data about the patient and their complaints using the senses: ObservingHearingTouching Smelling sometimes

3 Diagnostic Method The purpose of diagnosis is to be able to offer the most: * Effective and safe treatment * Accurate prognostication

4 Diagnostic Method Is to distinguish, to identify a disease by an investigation of the signs & symptoms. Diagnose Is the process of evaluating the patient’s health, as well as the resulting opinions formulated by the clinician Diagnosis

5 Diagnostic Method Is the ART of using scientific knowledge to identify oral disease process & to distinguish one disease from another. Oral Diagnosis Is concerned with diagnosis & treatment, consultation, referral & other phases of patient management. It deals especially with the relation between oral & systemic diseases. Oral Medicine

6 Diagnostic Method  Accurate diagnosis depends on systemic approach to unique diagnostic change posed by every patient.  The most effective approach is by applying scientific method to clinical decisions. Diagnostic Method


8 1- Collection of Information a) Detailed verbalization by the patient.b) Features determined by the clinician’s examination c) Data derived from adjunctive diagnostic procedures. (Laboratory tests) Clinician must stay objective.

9 Diagnostic Method 1- Collection of Information  It is Diagnostic Data Base  It provides basis for comparison of:  Disease Progress  Effectiveness of treatment

10 Diagnostic Method 1- Collection of Information Data Base consists of:Patient HistoryPhysical ExaminationAdjunctive diagnostic procedures

11 Diagnostic Method

12 2- Evaluation of Information Organize & Compare with past experienceCorrelate unusual findings to identify disease Assess the accuracy of information & resolve contradiction by: a- Tests b- Repeat tests Clinician must stay objective.

13 Diagnostic Method - Clinicians searches for association & pattern among the data collected. - Clinicians will mentally relate findings with knowledge of: * Normal Variation * Characteristics of disease * Comparison support preliminary decision Correct Diagnosis 2- Evaluation of Information

14 Diagnostic Method a- Organizing Diagnostic Information: * Recognize contributory from non-contributory information. * Some general information relates to several problems & appear in more than one category e.g, fever, weight loss. * Physical assessment * Dental conditions * Non-dental conditions 2- Evaluation of Information

15 Diagnostic Method b- Preliminary Decision of Diagnostic Information: * Must be made to identify the patient’s diagnostic problem & determine the approach to diagnosis. This is determined by: i) Relationship of findings e.g, dental pain on cold. ii) Reliability (Signs & Symptoms). iii) Consistency (Obesity & Hypertension). iv) Clinical Significance (tonsillectomy). 2- Evaluation of Information

16 Diagnostic Method * If comparison does not support preliminary decision * Incorrect Diagnosis * Re-evaluate history * Re-evaluate Examination 2- Evaluation of Information

17 Diagnostic Method 3- Diagnostic Decisions A hypothesis that may be correct OR not

18 Diagnostic Method * Systemic: Don’t confuse physical assessment with systemic diagnosis. “ confirm by medical consultation”. * Dental abnormality, e.g, caries, gingivitis, periodontitis. * Non-dental abnormality. 3- Diagnostic Decisions

19 Diagnostic Method * Non-dental abnormality: seen less common less experience. - Signs & Symptoms shared by many diseases. - Compare with other disease producing the same abnormality Differential Diagnosis 3- Diagnostic Decisions

20 Diagnostic Method 4- Re-assessment Testing the hypothesis: a) Additional tests b) An appropriate treatment Predict response

21 Diagnostic Method * After management Re-evaluate symptoms * Re-examine the affected region hypothesis testing * Accurate Diagnosis + appropriate treatment Good Response 4- Re-assessment

22 Diagnostic Method Diagnosis is made by the clinical examination, which comprise the: History, this offers the diagnosis in about 80% of cases Physical examination Investigations Sometimes

23 Types of Clinical Examinations 1- Comprehensive Dental Diagnosis 2- Re-call Diagnosis 3- Diagnosis of specific problem (SOAP) 4- Emergency Diagnosis 5- Screening Diagnosis

24 1- Comprehensive Dental Diagnosis * Intra & Extra oral examination + adjunctive procedures. * It serves for the following purposes: - Initial status - For comparison in later assessment. - Protect the clinician later if complication took place. - It takes time. - It provides sound diagnostic foundation for comprehensive treatment. Types of Clinical Examinations

25 2- Re-call Diagnosis * To identify the condition that have changed in comprehensive examination Reflects the patient’s current status * If a different dentist conducted the original diagnosis, the current dentist must confirm the accuracy of previous data. * Record the current findings then diagnose. Types of Clinical Examinations

26 3- Diagnosis of specific problem (SOAP) evaluation * Indicated if consultation is requested from other clinician & re-assessment of recent treatment SOAP. 1- The reason for the evaluation is briefly stated. 2- “S” Subjective information. 3- “O” Objective or physical findings. 4- “A” Analysis or clinical impression of the condition by the clinician. 5- “P” Plan or recommend management for the problem. Types of Clinical Examinations

27 4- Emergency Diagnosis * Manage a chief complaint. e.g, pain, bleeding that requires immediate attention. * Clinicians explores most aspects of history but limit examination to chief complaint. Types of Clinical Examinations

28 5- Screening Diagnosis * It answers a specific question about the patient. * The evaluation is limited to obtaining the information needed to answer this question only, e.g, cancer screening clinic. Types of Clinical Examinations

29 Evaluation of Diagnostic Information & Classification of Abnormalities Collecting Diagnostic Information Systemic Medical consultation Modify dental Tx Plan & Tx Dental Diagnosis Tx Plan & Tx Non-dental DDx Dx (clinical impression) Tx Initial clinical management Re-assessment

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